Browse Source

Publish new 0.0.18 version

main 0.0.18
manetta 2 years ago
parent
commit
8fd2abf8f4
  1. 24
      cron.sh
  2. 39
      etherpump/commands/pull.py
  3. 503
      index.html
  4. 1
      publish/abolitionist_tech-beyond_code_switching.meta.json
  5. 97
      publish/abolitionist_tech-beyond_code_switching.raw.html
  6. 50
      publish/abolitionist_tech-beyond_code_switching.raw.txt
  7. 1
      publish/abolitionist_tech-selling_empathy.meta.json
  8. 104
      publish/abolitionist_tech-selling_empathy.raw.html
  9. 44
      publish/abolitionist_tech-selling_empathy.raw.txt
  10. 1
      publish/abolitionist_tech.meta.json
  11. 225
      publish/abolitionist_tech.raw.html
  12. 171
      publish/abolitionist_tech.raw.txt
  13. 1
      publish/bbbwtfrofl.meta.json
  14. 40
      publish/bbbwtfrofl.raw.html
  15. 49
      publish/bbbwtfrofl.raw.txt
  16. 1
      publish/critical-making.meta.json
  17. 346
      publish/critical-making.raw.html
  18. 763
      publish/critical-making.raw.txt
  19. 1
      publish/digital-solidarity-networks.meta.json
  20. 890
      publish/digital-solidarity-networks.raw.html
  21. 474
      publish/digital-solidarity-networks.raw.txt
  22. 1
      publish/elephant.meta.json
  23. 127
      publish/elephant.raw.html
  24. 78
      publish/elephant.raw.txt
  25. 1
      publish/etherstekje.vibe.meta.json
  26. 111
      publish/etherstekje.vibe.raw.html
  27. 144
      publish/etherstekje.vibe.raw.txt
  28. 1
      publish/feed-feeding.meta.json
  29. 200
      publish/feed-feeding.raw.html
  30. 128
      publish/feed-feeding.raw.txt
  31. 1
      publish/floppytotaal.31notes.meta.json
  32. 101
      publish/floppytotaal.31notes.raw.html
  33. 159
      publish/floppytotaal.31notes.raw.txt
  34. 1
      publish/funkwhale_orga.meta.json
  35. 79
      publish/funkwhale_orga.raw.html
  36. 174
      publish/funkwhale_orga.raw.txt
  37. 1
      publish/interdependencies.meta.json
  38. 565
      publish/interdependencies.raw.html
  39. 359
      publish/interdependencies.raw.txt
  40. 1
      publish/lgm2019.meta.json
  41. 206
      publish/lgm2019.raw.html
  42. 283
      publish/lgm2019.raw.txt
  43. 1
      publish/maxigas-configs.meta.json
  44. 46
      publish/maxigas-configs.raw.html
  45. 52
      publish/maxigas-configs.raw.txt
  46. 1
      publish/minimal-viable-learning.meta.json
  47. 606
      publish/minimal-viable-learning.raw.html
  48. 366
      publish/minimal-viable-learning.raw.txt
  49. 1
      publish/onions.meta.json
  50. 21
      publish/onions.raw.html
  51. 29
      publish/onions.raw.txt
  52. 1
      publish/pad.css.meta.json
  53. 19
      publish/pad.css.raw.html
  54. 25
      publish/pad.css.raw.txt
  55. 1
      publish/prague-ccld.meta.json
  56. 468
      publish/prague-ccld.raw.html
  57. 229
      publish/prague-ccld.raw.txt
  58. 1
      publish/prototypes-as-arguments.meta.json
  59. 93
      publish/prototypes-as-arguments.raw.html
  60. 85
      publish/prototypes-as-arguments.raw.txt
  61. 1
      publish/radioreboot.meta.json
  62. 83
      publish/radioreboot.raw.html
  63. 100
      publish/radioreboot.raw.txt
  64. 1
      publish/relearn_bash_preexec.meta.json
  65. 63
      publish/relearn_bash_preexec.raw.html
  66. 330
      publish/relearn_bash_preexec.raw.txt
  67. 1
      publish/relearn_hooks.meta.json
  68. 107
      publish/relearn_hooks.raw.html
  69. 544
      publish/relearn_hooks.raw.txt
  70. 1
      publish/rr-digi-soli-networks.meta.json
  71. 303
      publish/rr-digi-soli-networks.raw.html
  72. 341
      publish/rr-digi-soli-networks.raw.txt
  73. 1
      publish/self-hosting-together.meta.json
  74. 119
      publish/self-hosting-together.raw.html
  75. 215
      publish/self-hosting-together.raw.txt
  76. 1
      publish/status.meta.json
  77. 21
      publish/status.raw.html
  78. 13
      publish/status.raw.txt
  79. 1
      publish/streaming.meta.json
  80. 217
      publish/streaming.raw.html
  81. 204
      publish/streaming.raw.txt
  82. 1
      publish/syncing-as-in-collaborative-writing.meta.json
  83. 180
      publish/syncing-as-in-collaborative-writing.raw.html
  84. 164
      publish/syncing-as-in-collaborative-writing.raw.txt
  85. 1
      publish/temporary_riparian_zone.meta.json
  86. 1057
      publish/temporary_riparian_zone.raw.html
  87. 718
      publish/temporary_riparian_zone.raw.txt
  88. 1
      publish/varia.meta.json
  89. 58
      publish/varia.raw.html
  90. 72
      publish/varia.raw.txt
  91. 1
      publish/variapad_introtext.meta.json
  92. 15
      publish/variapad_introtext.raw.html
  93. 32
      publish/variapad_introtext.raw.txt
  94. 1
      publish/wg.communitynetworks.meta.json
  95. 318
      publish/wg.communitynetworks.raw.html
  96. 257
      publish/wg.communitynetworks.raw.txt
  97. 1
      publish/wg.electro.meta.json
  98. 166
      publish/wg.electro.raw.html
  99. 218
      publish/wg.electro.raw.txt
  100. 1
      publish/wg.membermeeting1.meta.json

24
cron.sh

@ -0,0 +1,24 @@
# This will pump all the pads with a __PUBLISH__ tag into a folder "publish" as meta.json, txt, html and dhtml
poetry run etherpump pull --meta --html --text --publish-opt-in --publish __PUBLISH__ --pub publish --css ../stylesheet.css --fix-names
echo "Making the Etherpump index now ..."
# This will make an index for the dump
poetry run etherpump index input \
publish/*.meta.json \
--templatepath templates \
--title "Notes, __MAGICWORDS__, readers & more ..." \
--output index.html
# tmp
#rm -r ../publish/
#mv publish ../
#mv index.html ../
echo "Done!"
# This will save a pad.css file every hour from the pad https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/pad.css
# cp publish/pad.css /srv/etherpad-lite/src/altetherpad/src/static/skins/no-skin/pad.css

39
etherpump/commands/pull.py

@ -170,6 +170,11 @@ def build_argument_parser(args):
action="store_true",
help="ensure `--publish` is honoured instead of `--nopublish`",
)
parser.add_argument(
"--magic-words",
default=False,
help="store all magic words used in a page in the meta.json file",
)
return parser
@ -367,6 +372,40 @@ async def handle_pad(args, padid, data, info, session):
# once the content is settled, compute a hash
# and link it in the metadata!
# include magic words
if args.magic_words:
##########################################
## INCLUDE __XXX__ MAGIC WORDS
##########################################
pattern = r'[__\w+?__]'
magic_words = re.match(pattern, string)
magic_words = magic_words.groups()
print(magic_words)
if args.publish_opt_in and args.publish not in text:
await try_deleting(
(
p + raw_ext,
p + ".raw.html",
p + ".diff.html",
p + ".meta.json",
)
)
print("[ ] {} (deleted, reason: publish opt-out)".format(padid))
skipped += 1
return False
ver["path"] = p + raw_ext
ver["url"] = quote(ver["path"])
async with await trio.open_file(ver["path"], "w") as f:
try:
# Note(decentral1se): unicode handling...
safe_text = text.encode("utf-8", "replace").decode()
await f.write(safe_text)
except Exception as exception:
print("PANIC: {}".format(exception))
links = []
if args.css:
links.append({"href": args.css, "rel": "stylesheet"})

503
index.html

@ -0,0 +1,503 @@
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en-US">
<head>
<meta charset="utf-8" />
<title>Notes, __MAGICWORDS__, readers & more ...</title>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="stylesheet.css">
<!--<link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" href="recentchanges.rss">-->
</head>
<body>
<h1>Notes, __MAGICWORDS__, readers & more ...</h1>
<div id="welcome">
Welcome! The pages below have been deliberately published by their authors in order to share their thoughts, research and process in an early form. This page represents one of Varia's low-effort publishing tools. The pages are all produced through Varia's <a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/">Etherpad instance</a>.
<br>
<br>
Etherpad is used as collaborative writing tool to take notes, create readers, coordinate projects and document gatherings that happen in and around Varia. For example <a href="publish/wg.membermeeting10.raw.html">wg.membermeeting10</a>.
<br>
<br>
This index is updated every 60 minutes.
</div>
<table>
<thead>
<tr>
<th>name</th>
<th>versions</th>
<!--<th>last edited</th>-->
<!--<th>revisions</th>-->
<!--<th>authors</th>-->
</tr>
</thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/abolitionist_tech.raw.html">abolitionist_tech</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/abolitionist_tech">pad</a> <a href="publish/abolitionist_tech.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/abolitionist_tech.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/abolitionist_tech.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2020-07-21 16:46:29</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">6590</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/abolitionist_tech-beyond_code_switching.raw.html">abolitionist_tech-beyond_code_switching</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/abolitionist_tech-beyond_code_switching">pad</a> <a href="publish/abolitionist_tech-beyond_code_switching.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/abolitionist_tech-beyond_code_switching.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/abolitionist_tech-beyond_code_switching.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2020-07-21 16:46:29</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">3095</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/abolitionist_tech-selling_empathy.raw.html">abolitionist_tech-selling_empathy</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/abolitionist_tech-selling_empathy">pad</a> <a href="publish/abolitionist_tech-selling_empathy.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/abolitionist_tech-selling_empathy.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/abolitionist_tech-selling_empathy.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2020-06-08 13:20:00</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">2446</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/bbbwtfrofl.raw.html">bbbwtfrofl</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/bbbwtfrofl">pad</a> <a href="publish/bbbwtfrofl.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/bbbwtfrofl.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/bbbwtfrofl.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2020-06-11 13:05:44</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">624</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/critical-making.raw.html">critical-making</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/critical-making">pad</a> <a href="publish/critical-making.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/critical-making.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/critical-making.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2020-03-13 13:22:58</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">10249</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/digital-solidarity-networks.raw.html">digital-solidarity-networks</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/digital-solidarity-networks">pad</a> <a href="publish/digital-solidarity-networks.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/digital-solidarity-networks.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/digital-solidarity-networks.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2020-06-29 15:50:04</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">7477</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/elephant.raw.html">elephant</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/elephant">pad</a> <a href="publish/elephant.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/elephant.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/elephant.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2020-03-17 09:30:53</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">96</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/etherstekje.vibe.raw.html">etherstekje.vibe</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/etherstekje.vibe">pad</a> <a href="publish/etherstekje.vibe.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/etherstekje.vibe.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/etherstekje.vibe.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2019-02-13 20:29:00</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">45</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/feed-feeding.raw.html">feed-feeding</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/feed-feeding">pad</a> <a href="publish/feed-feeding.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/feed-feeding.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/feed-feeding.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2018-08-21 18:08:24</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">2</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/floppytotaal.31notes.raw.html">floppytotaal.31notes</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/floppytotaal.31notes">pad</a> <a href="publish/floppytotaal.31notes.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/floppytotaal.31notes.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/floppytotaal.31notes.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2019-08-27 18:25:57</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">5245</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">1</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/funkwhale_orga.raw.html">funkwhale_orga</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/funkwhale_orga">pad</a> <a href="publish/funkwhale_orga.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/funkwhale_orga.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/funkwhale_orga.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2020-10-29 16:56:33</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">93</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/interdependencies.raw.html">interdependencies</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/interdependencies">pad</a> <a href="publish/interdependencies.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/interdependencies.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/interdependencies.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2019-05-08 12:57:06</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">83</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/lgm2019.raw.html">lgm2019</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/lgm2019">pad</a> <a href="publish/lgm2019.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/lgm2019.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/lgm2019.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2019-09-29 19:53:50</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">3518</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/maxigas-configs.raw.html">maxigas-configs</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/maxigas-configs">pad</a> <a href="publish/maxigas-configs.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/maxigas-configs.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/maxigas-configs.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2020-01-29 17:15:13</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">2318</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/minimal-viable-learning.raw.html">minimal-viable-learning</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/minimal-viable-learning">pad</a> <a href="publish/minimal-viable-learning.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/minimal-viable-learning.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/minimal-viable-learning.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2020-05-06 13:22:03</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">3859</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/onions.raw.html">onions</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/onions">pad</a> <a href="publish/onions.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/onions.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/onions.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2018-09-06 16:14:40</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">1</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/pad.css.raw.html">pad.css</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/pad.css">pad</a> <a href="publish/pad.css.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/pad.css.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/pad.css.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2018-04-27 16:23:11</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">184</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/prague-ccld.raw.html">prague-ccld</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/prague-ccld">pad</a> <a href="publish/prague-ccld.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/prague-ccld.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/prague-ccld.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2019-10-11 16:16:56</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">8165</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/prototypes-as-arguments.raw.html">prototypes-as-arguments</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/prototypes-as-arguments">pad</a> <a href="publish/prototypes-as-arguments.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/prototypes-as-arguments.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/prototypes-as-arguments.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2020-07-05 21:35:27</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">1134</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/radioreboot.raw.html">radioreboot</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/radioreboot">pad</a> <a href="publish/radioreboot.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/radioreboot.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/radioreboot.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2020-04-25 23:37:24</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">1591</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/relearn_bash_preexec.raw.html">relearn_bash_preexec</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/relearn_bash_preexec">pad</a> <a href="publish/relearn_bash_preexec.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/relearn_bash_preexec.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/relearn_bash_preexec.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2019-06-05 12:37:24</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">1</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/relearn_hooks.raw.html">relearn_hooks</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/relearn_hooks">pad</a> <a href="publish/relearn_hooks.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/relearn_hooks.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/relearn_hooks.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2019-06-05 12:37:24</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">3</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="name">
<a href="publish/rr-digi-soli-networks.raw.html">rr-digi-soli-networks</a>
</td>
<td class="versions">
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/p/rr-digi-soli-networks">pad</a> <a href="publish/rr-digi-soli-networks.raw.txt">text</a> <a href="publish/rr-digi-soli-networks.raw.html">html</a> <a href="publish/rr-digi-soli-networks.meta.json">meta</a>
</td>
<!--<td class="lastedited">2018-01-26 14:16:19</td>-->
<!--<td class="revisions">2935</td>-->
<!--<td class="authors">0</td>-->
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<strong>Beyond Code-Switching</strong>
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<li>When people change how they speak or act in order to conform to dominant norms, we call it “code-switching.” And, like other types of codes we have explored in this book, the practice of code-switching is power-laden. Justine Cassell, a professor at Carnegie Mellon’s Human–Computer Interaction Institute, creates educational programs for children and found that avatars using African American Vernacular English lead Black children “to achieve better results in teaching scientific concepts than when the computer spoke in standard English.” But when it came to tutoring the children for class presentations, she explained that “we wanted it [sc. the avatar] to practice with them in ‘proper English.’ Standard American English is still the code of power, so we needed to develop an agent that would train them in code switching.” This reminds us that whoever defines the standard expression exercises power over everyone else, who is forced to fit in or else risks getting pushed out. But what is the alternative?<strong> ። ፥This is also a problem in Dutch Universities and art spaces where you have to write in English. The thoughts you express in a second language are always more difficult to be precise. I tutor math which should be a universal language but find that children who have non Dutch speaking parents will miss fine distinctions in the questions they are asked. may i ask what level is that?  highschool havo/vwo oh i see, got confused with uni yes I was an external examiner as well at an art school BA level where the English was sometimes so bad it made it hard to read. It was like reading google translate i have had the same problem and i must say that i wonder whether the fact that only non dutch have to obtain a toefl explains why its usually with dutch students i get most difficulties</strong>
</li>
<li></li>
<li>When I first started teaching at Princeton, a smart phone app, Yik Yak, was still popular among my students. It was founded in 2013 and allowed users to post anonymously while voting “up” and voting “down” others’ posts, and was designed to be used by people within a five-mile radius (sounds a bit like zuckerberg's hot or not / pre facebook voting website). It was especially popular on college campuses and, like other social media sites, the app reinforced and exposed racism and anti-Black hatred among young people. As in Internet comments sections more broadly, people often say on Yik Yak what they would not say in person, and so all pretense of racial progress is washed away by spending just five minutes perusing the posts.</li>
<li></li>
<li>But the difference from other virtual encounters is that users know that the racist views on Yik Yak are held by people in close proximity – those you pass in the dorm, make small talk with in the dining hall, work with on a class project. I logged on to see what my students were dealing with, but quickly found the toxicity to consist “overwhelmingly of … racist intellectualism, false equivalences, elite entitlement, and just plain old ignorance in peak form. White supremacy upvoted by a new generation … truly demoralizing for a teacher. So I had to log off. Real education could start by making people aware of the fact that digital bullying is still bullying. And writing has consequences </li>
<li>hhhm, i also believe some design reinforces bullying, twitter for instance seems to have a tendancy to exacerbate conflict and harassment. Not trying to deresponsibilise people but some systems work better than some others at exacerbating tendancies.</li>
<li>This relates to coding and algorithms that favour dissent</li>
<li></li>
<li>Racism, I often say, is a form of theft. Yes, it has justified the theft of land, labor, and life throughout the centuries. But racism also robs us of our relationships, stealing our capacity to trust one another, ripping away the social fabric, every anonymous post pilfering our ability to build community.<strong> ¡</strong> I knew that such direct exposure to this kind of unadulterated racism among people whom I encounter every day would quickly steal my enthusiasm for teaching. The fact is, I do not need to be constantly exposed to it to understand that we have a serious problem – exposure, as I discussed it in previous chapters, is no straightforward good. My experience with Yik Yak reminded me that we are not going to simply “age out” of White supremacy, because the bigoted baton has been passed and a new generation is even more adept at rationalizing racism.<strong> 、This is also a big problem under Dutch students who put all their racism in the category joke. or even make it pass as an opinion of equal value to an other (thinking about FR right now) yes even more dangerous. The whole idea that there should be a debate about racism plays into this as well. Racism is not a debatable subject in the sense whether we are for or against it indeed and somewhat this strategy has only just made it more audible</strong>
</li>
<li></li>
<li>Yik Yak eventually went out of business in 2017, but what I think of as NextGen Racism is still very much in business … more racially coded than we typically find in anonymous posts. Coded speech, as we have seen, reflects particular power dynamics that allow some people to impose their values and interests upon others. As one of my White male students wrote – in solidarity with the Black Justice League, a student group that was receiving hateful backlash on social media after campus protests:</li>
<li>
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<li>
<em>“To change Yik Yak, we will have to change the people using it. To change those people, we will have to change the culture in which they – and we – live. To change that culture, we’ll have to work tirelessly and relentlessly towards a radical rethinking of the way we live – and that rethinking will eventually need to involve all of us.”</em>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li></li>
<li>I see this as a call to rewrite dominant cultural codes rather than simply to code-switch. It is a call to embed new values and new social relations into the world. Whereas code-switching is about fitting in and “leaning in” to play a game created by others, perhaps what we need more of is to stretch out the arenas in which we live and work to become more inclusive and just.</li>
<li></li>
<li>If, as Cathy O’Neil writes, “Big Data processes codify the past. They do not invent the future.<strong> Doing that requires moral imagination</strong>, and that’s something only humans can provide,” then what we need is greater investment in socially just imaginaries. aplausse, I like this bit too, I think that spending time imagining moral can be quite interesting, a lot can come up. This, I think, would have to entail a socially conscious approach to tech development that would require prioritizing equity over efficiency, social good over market imperatives. Given the importance of training sets in machine learning, another set of interventions would require designing computer programs from scratch and training AI “like a child,” so as to make us aware of social biases. As I am reading I am thinking of the term "Super-code". That everything just writes ontop of each other... (that makes me think of palimpsest) but a part in me do more like this idea of traing AI as children. Like some kind of reprograming of what we have. Like move away from thinking that we need something "new" maybe, but how can it be reprogramed. but to program is to create a set of instructions, so I am thinking that programming if using the same material that has been passed through generation (something that could be alike the concept of cultural archive), then it's still gonna generate problems perhaps I think that is a good point. I am just sitting and trying to imagine how the online or tech world would look like if you were only aloowed to express positive feelings. Like instagram without a commentary field. But maybe the lack of likes would then say things.</li>
<li>(Instagram actually feels like a very positive social network)It dose, but maybe I am biteing my own tail now, you can also be positive towards racism right?! or display oppressive benevolance even :-/ Yes!</li>
<li>You can also like images of not so nice people and posts. Maybe here the moral imagination comes in... (btw I think we are moving soon to the last thingy)Back to the other pad you mean? <a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/abolitionist_tech" rel="noreferrer noopener">https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/abolitionist_tech</a> ;-)Sure! ah we have 3 mins sorry But rehinking posetively, ading what is undernieth here, I am also thinking that, if I am thinking posetivily, that we might will see changes like what is described coming, I was listening to a radio program a couple of years ago, where they were speaksing about how now it is possible to understand the damages the tech world can do in reltion to social justice or social relationships. Maybe there will be more laws around in the future, so it at least will not be so accecible. </li>
<li>at least we are kind of lucky to be in Europe I think, but what i sometimes fear is that the legal framework often appears too late Think that is a good point too! have you added the obama comment?No it was not me!</li>
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<li>The key is that all this takes time and intention, which runs against the rush to innovate that pervades the ethos of tech marketing campaigns. But, if we are not simply “users” but people committed to building a more just society, it is vital that we <strong>demand a slower and more socially conscious innovation</strong>. The nonprofit AI research company Open AI says, as a practical model for this approach, that it will stop competing and start assisting another project if it is value-aligned and safety-conscious, because continuing to compete usually short “changes “adequate safety precautions” and, I would add, justice concerns.</li>
<li></li>
<li>
<strong>Ultimately we must demand that tech designers and decision-makers become accountable stewards of technology</strong>, able to advance social welfare. For example, the Algorithmic Justice League has launched a Safe Face Pledge that calls on organizations to take a public stand “towards mitigating the abuse of facial recognition analysis technology. This historic pledge prohibits lethal use of the technology, lawless police use, and requires transparency in any government use” and includes radical commitments such as “show value for human life, dignity, and rights.” Tellingly, none of the major tech companies has been willing to sign the pledge to date.”</li>
<li></li>
<li>“Nevertheless, there are some promising signs that the innocent do-good ethos is shifting and that more industry insiders are acknowledging the complicity of technology in systems of power. For example, thousands of Google employees recently condemned the company’s collaboration on a Pentagon program that uses AI to make drone strikes more effective. And a growing number of Microsoft employees are opposed to the company’s contract with the US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE): “As the people who build the technologies that Microsoft profits from, we refuse to be complicit.” Much of this reflects the broader public outrage surrounding the Trump administration’s policy of family separation, which rips thousands of children from their parents and holds them in camps reminiscent of the racist regimes of a previous era.</li>
<li></li>
<li>The fact that computer programmers and others in the tech industry are beginning to recognize their complicity in making the New Jim Code possible is a worthwhile development. It also suggests that design is intentional and that political protest matters in shaping internal debates and conflicts within companies. This kind of “informed refusal” 𐏐 expressed by Google and Microsoft employees is certainly necessary as we build a movement to counter the New Jim Code, but we cannot wait for worker sympathies to sway the industry.</li>
<li></li>
<li>Where, after all, is the public outrage over the systematic terror exercised by police in Black neighborhoods with or without the aid of novel technologies? Where are the open letters and employee petitions refusing to build crime production models that entrap racialized communities? Why is there no comparable public fury directed at the surveillance techniques, from the prison system to the foster system, that have torn Black families apart long before Trump’s administration? The selective outrage follows long-standing patterns of neglect and normalizes anti-Blackness as the weather, as Christina Sharpe notes, whereas non-Black suffering is treated as a disaster. This is why we cannot wait for the tech industry to regulate itself on the basis of popular sympathies.</li>
</ul>
</li>
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<br>
<br>
<strong>Some conversation starters... (feel free to add your own)</strong>
<br>
<br>
<strong>¡</strong> "<em>Racism is a form of theft Yes, it has justified the theft of land, labor, and life throughout the centuries. But racism also robs us of our relationships, stealing our capacity to trust one another, ripping away the social fabric, every anonymous post pilfering our ability to build community.</em>"<br>I appreciate this sentence, it makes me think that there are parts of social relation that can exist in spite of / across a racist society, which are at some point of our lives stolen from us. <strong>(LINE 9)</strong>
<br>
<br>
<strong></strong>Can we think about the "codes" of the dominant classes we can perceive around us? (and which ones would you say are "undesirable?) <strong>(LINE 3)</strong>
<br>
<br>
<strong></strong>What code-switching do we perform ourselves? To aid a code "vanishing" do we need to stop performing? <strong>(LINE 3)</strong>
<br>
<br>
<strong>𐏐 </strong>How can we encourage an "informed refusal" in the users of racist technologies, not only the workers? <strong>(LINE 25)</strong>
<br>
<br>
<strong></strong> Why are we more adept at "<em>rationalizing racism.</em>"?<strong>(LINE 9)</strong>
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<br>__PUBLISH__<br>
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Beyond Code-Switching
When people change how they speak or act in order to conform to dominant norms, we call it “code-switching.” And, like other types of codes we have explored in this book, the practice of code-switching is power-laden. Justine Cassell, a professor at Carnegie Mellon’s Human–Computer Interaction Institute, creates educational programs for children and found that avatars using African American Vernacular English lead Black children “to achieve better results in teaching scientific concepts than when the computer spoke in standard English.” But when it came to tutoring the children for class presentations, she explained that “we wanted it [sc. the avatar] to practice with them in ‘proper English.’ Standard American English is still the code of power, so we needed to develop an agent that would train them in code switching.” This reminds us that whoever defines the standard expression exercises power over everyone else, who is forced to fit in or else risks getting pushed out. But what is the alternative? ። ፥This is also a problem in Dutch Universities and art spaces where you have to write in English. The thoughts you express in a second language are always more difficult to be precise. I tutor math which should be a universal language but find that children who have non Dutch speaking parents will miss fine distinctions in the questions they are asked. may i ask what level is that? highschool havo/vwo oh i see, got confused with uni yes I was an external examiner as well at an art school BA level where the English was sometimes so bad it made it hard to read. It was like reading google translate i have had the same problem and i must say that i wonder whether the fact that only non dutch have to obtain a toefl explains why its usually with dutch students i get most difficulties
When I first started teaching at Princeton, a smart phone app, Yik Yak, was still popular among my students. It was founded in 2013 and allowed users to post anonymously while voting “up” and voting “down” others’ posts, and was designed to be used by people within a five-mile radius (sounds a bit like zuckerberg's hot or not / pre facebook voting website). It was especially popular on college campuses and, like other social media sites, the app reinforced and exposed racism and anti-Black hatred among young people. As in Internet comments sections more broadly, people often say on Yik Yak what they would not say in person, and so all pretense of racial progress is washed away by spending just five minutes perusing the posts.
But the difference from other virtual encounters is that users know that the racist views on Yik Yak are held by people in close proximity – those you pass in the dorm, make small talk with in the dining hall, work with on a class project. I logged on to see what my students were dealing with, but quickly found the toxicity to consist “overwhelmingly of … racist intellectualism, false equivalences, elite entitlement, and just plain old ignorance in peak form. White supremacy upvoted by a new generation … truly demoralizing for a teacher. So I had to log off. Real education could start by making people aware of the fact that digital bullying is still bullying. And writing has consequences
hhhm, i also believe some design reinforces bullying, twitter for instance seems to have a tendancy to exacerbate conflict and harassment. Not trying to deresponsibilise people but some systems work better than some others at exacerbating tendancies.
This relates to coding and algorithms that favour dissent
Racism, I often say, is a form of theft. Yes, it has justified the theft of land, labor, and life throughout the centuries. But racism also robs us of our relationships, stealing our capacity to trust one another, ripping away the social fabric, every anonymous post pilfering our ability to build community. ¡ I knew that such direct exposure to this kind of unadulterated racism among people whom I encounter every day would quickly steal my enthusiasm for teaching. The fact is, I do not need to be constantly exposed to it to understand that we have a serious problem – exposure, as I discussed it in previous chapters, is no straightforward good. My experience with Yik Yak reminded me that we are not going to simply “age out” of White supremacy, because the bigoted baton has been passed and a new generation is even more adept at rationalizing racism. 、This is also a big problem under Dutch students who put all their racism in the category joke. or even make it pass as an opinion of equal value to an other (thinking about FR right now) yes even more dangerous. The whole idea that there should be a debate about racism plays into this as well. Racism is not a debatable subject in the sense whether we are for or against it indeed and somewhat this strategy has only just made it more audible
Yik Yak eventually went out of business in 2017, but what I think of as NextGen Racism is still very much in business … more racially coded than we typically find in anonymous posts. Coded speech, as we have seen, reflects particular power dynamics that allow some people to impose their values and interests upon others. As one of my White male students wrote – in solidarity with the Black Justice League, a student group that was receiving hateful backlash on social media after campus protests:
“To change Yik Yak, we will have to change the people using it. To change those people, we will have to change the culture in which they – and we – live. To change that culture, we’ll have to work tirelessly and relentlessly towards a radical rethinking of the way we live – and that rethinking will eventually need to involve all of us.”
I see this as a call to rewrite dominant cultural codes rather than simply to code-switch. It is a call to embed new values and new social relations into the world. Whereas code-switching is about fitting in and “leaning in” to play a game created by others, perhaps what we need more of is to stretch out the arenas in which we live and work to become more inclusive and just.
If, as Cathy O’Neil writes, “Big Data processes codify the past. They do not invent the future. Doing that requires moral imagination, and that’s something only humans can provide,” then what we need is greater investment in socially just imaginaries. aplausse, I like this bit too, I think that spending time imagining moral can be quite interesting, a lot can come up. This, I think, would have to entail a socially conscious approach to tech development that would require prioritizing equity over efficiency, social good over market imperatives. Given the importance of training sets in machine learning, another set of interventions would require designing computer programs from scratch and training AI “like a child,” so as to make us aware of social biases. As I am reading I am thinking of the term "Super-code". That everything just writes ontop of each other... (that makes me think of palimpsest) but a part in me do more like this idea of traing AI as children. Like some kind of reprograming of what we have. Like move away from thinking that we need something "new" maybe, but how can it be reprogramed. but to program is to create a set of instructions, so I am thinking that programming if using the same material that has been passed through generation (something that could be alike the concept of cultural archive), then it's still gonna generate problems perhaps I think that is a good point. I am just sitting and trying to imagine how the online or tech world would look like if you were only aloowed to express positive feelings. Like instagram without a commentary field. But maybe the lack of likes would then say things.
(Instagram actually feels like a very positive social network)It dose, but maybe I am biteing my own tail now, you can also be positive towards racism right?! or display oppressive benevolance even :-/ Yes!
You can also like images of not so nice people and posts. Maybe here the moral imagination comes in... (btw I think we are moving soon to the last thingy)Back to the other pad you mean? https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/abolitionist_tech ;-)Sure! ah we have 3 mins sorry But rehinking posetively, ading what is undernieth here, I am also thinking that, if I am thinking posetivily, that we might will see changes like what is described coming, I was listening to a radio program a couple of years ago, where they were speaksing about how now it is possible to understand the damages the tech world can do in reltion to social justice or social relationships. Maybe there will be more laws around in the future, so it at least will not be so accecible.
at least we are kind of lucky to be in Europe I think, but what i sometimes fear is that the legal framework often appears too late Think that is a good point too! have you added the obama comment?No it was not me!
The key is that all this takes time and intention, which runs against the rush to innovate that pervades the ethos of tech marketing campaigns. But, if we are not simply “users” but people committed to building a more just society, it is vital that we demand a slower and more socially conscious innovation. The nonprofit AI research company Open AI says, as a practical model for this approach, that it will stop competing and start assisting another project if it is value-aligned and safety-conscious, because continuing to compete usually short “changes “adequate safety precautions” and, I would add, justice concerns.
Ultimately we must demand that tech designers and decision-makers become accountable stewards of technology, able to advance social welfare. For example, the Algorithmic Justice League has launched a Safe Face Pledge that calls on organizations to take a public stand “towards mitigating the abuse of facial recognition analysis technology. This historic pledge prohibits lethal use of the technology, lawless police use, and requires transparency in any government use” and includes radical commitments such as “show value for human life, dignity, and rights.” Tellingly, none of the major tech companies has been willing to sign the pledge to date.”
“Nevertheless, there are some promising signs that the innocent do-good ethos is shifting and that more industry insiders are acknowledging the complicity of technology in systems of power. For example, thousands of Google employees recently condemned the company’s collaboration on a Pentagon program that uses AI to make drone strikes more effective. And a growing number of Microsoft employees are opposed to the company’s contract with the US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE): “As the people who build the technologies that Microsoft profits from, we refuse to be complicit.” Much of this reflects the broader public outrage surrounding the Trump administration’s policy of family separation, which rips thousands of children from their parents and holds them in camps reminiscent of the racist regimes of a previous era.
The fact that computer programmers and others in the tech industry are beginning to recognize their complicity in making the New Jim Code possible is a worthwhile development. It also suggests that design is intentional and that political protest matters in shaping internal debates and conflicts within companies. This kind of “informed refusal” 𐏐 expressed by Google and Microsoft employees is certainly necessary as we build a movement to counter the New Jim Code, but we cannot wait for worker sympathies to sway the industry.
Where, after all, is the public outrage over the systematic terror exercised by police in Black neighborhoods with or without the aid of novel technologies? Where are the open letters and employee petitions refusing to build crime production models that entrap racialized communities? Why is there no comparable public fury directed at the surveillance techniques, from the prison system to the foster system, that have torn Black families apart long before Trump’s administration? The selective outrage follows long-standing patterns of neglect and normalizes anti-Blackness as the weather, as Christina Sharpe notes, whereas non-Black suffering is treated as a disaster. This is why we cannot wait for the tech industry to regulate itself on the basis of popular sympathies.
Some conversation starters... (feel free to add your own)
¡ "Racism is a form of theft Yes, it has justified the theft of land, labor, and life throughout the centuries. But racism also robs us of our relationships, stealing our capacity to trust one another, ripping away the social fabric, every anonymous post pilfering our ability to build community."
I appreciate this sentence, it makes me think that there are parts of social relation that can exist in spite of / across a racist society, which are at some point of our lives stolen from us. (LINE 9)
፥ Can we think about the "codes" of the dominant classes we can perceive around us? (and which ones would you say are "undesirable?) (LINE 3)
። What code-switching do we perform ourselves? To aid a code "vanishing" do we need to stop performing? (LINE 3)
𐏐 How can we encourage an "informed refusal" in the users of racist technologies, not only the workers? (LINE 25)
、 Why are we more adept at "rationalizing racism."?(LINE 9)
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<strong>Selling Empathy</strong>
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<li>Empathy talk is everywhere. I have used it myself as shorthand, as a way to index the lack of social cohesion and justice (is that what empathy is?) I once heard a really nice description of empathy, &amp; how it differs from sympathy &amp; pity. Pity = looking down on someone and feeling sorry. Sympathy = sitting across from someone and saying 'I understand'. Empathy = the ability to crawl into someone else's skin &amp; truly feel what that person is experiencing. They probably said it much more poetic way then I just did but that 'bout sums it up.I think they work for the text later on, with this VR stuff. I think we use empathy when really we mean sympathy, because we rarely feel what others feel., and as a gentler way to invoke the need for solidarity. <strong>Empathy is woven more and more into the marketing of tech products.</strong> (and design education)all education if we read on. Since when was that a tick box for curriculum? I participate in a lot of conferences for primary and secondary school educators and I see how the product expos at these events promise these teachers’ that gadgets and software will cultivate empathy in students. Virtual reality (VR) technology in particular is routinely described as an “empathy machine” because of the way it allows us to move through someone else’s world. Perhaps it does, in some cases. But, as some critics emphasize, this rhetoric creates a moral imperative to sell headsets and to consume human anguish, and in the process <strong>“pain is repurposed as a site of economic production”!</strong>!!all our natrual resources, minerals and emotions can be exploited:</li>
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<li><em>Imagine a VR live stream of a police killing. This, tragically, will soon cease to be science fiction: within years, you will be able to experience an extremely convincing simulation of what it’s like to be murdered by a cop fuuuuuck wtf??. Will this lead to the cop’s conviction, or to meaningful criminal justice reform? Recent history suggests the answer is no. But the content will probably go viral, as its affective intensity generates high levels of user engagement. And this virality will generate revenue for the company that owns the platform.</em>”:(</li>
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<li>Empathy makes businesses grow. In the first quarter of 2016 alone, venture capitalists invested almost $1.2 billion in VR technologies, almost 50 percent more than in the previous quarter. In 2017, following the devasting hurricane in Puerto Rico, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg used the company’s VR app to “visit” the island as part of Facebook’s partnership with the Red Cross recovery effort. (i remember this, and how gross it was; something else that comes to mind is the viral image of zuckerberg prancing around down a corridor during a conference while everyone else was wearing a VR headset) While Zuckerberg was immersed in the scene, those watching the live feed saw his cartoon avatar touring through the wreckage alongside another company executive who, at one point, comments: “it’s crazy to feel like you’re in the middle of it.”(omg sounds more like disaster tourism; wreckage from the comfort of your own home if you're rich!)20 In response to criticism, Zuckerberg apologized by saying:</li>
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<li><em>One of the most powerful features of VR is empathy. My goal here was to show how VR can raise awareness and help us see what’s happening in different parts of the world. I also wanted to share the news of our partnership with the Red Cross to help with the recovery. Reading some of the comments, I realize this wasn’t clear, and I’m sorry to anyone this offended.</em>this isn't really an apology for the act. It's an apology for someone else's emotional response”߸ so frustrating... when the ceo of such an influential company is unable to apologize for his own actions and lead by example. also in the end it's still the individual's own rush or whatever it is they're getting from such a vr experience. very good point. has little to nothing to do with sympathy or being sympathetic.</li>
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<li>While some observers said the problem was that Zuckerberg’s immersive experience was not reflected in the cartoonish portrayal that viewers were witnessing, others have called into question the very idea of VR as “empathy-inducing. As in other “awareness-raising experiences where viewers get a firsthand view of war, sickness, or other forms of suffering,” good intentions are no safeguard against harm or exploitation. As one critic observed:</li>
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<em>"The rhetoric of the empathy machine asks us to endorse technology without questioning the politics of its construction or who profits from it … Do you really need to wear a VR headset in order to empathize with someone? Can’t you just fucking listen to them and believe them? You need to be entertained as well? </em>(yess! so well put)<em>
<strong>Are you sure this isn’t about you</strong>? word … <strong>I don’t want your empathy, I want justice!</strong>
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<li>When I ask my students to question their assumptions about various issues, I often use the analogy of “lenses” – encouraging a different lens so that we may look anew at all that we take for granted. Well, now, the lenses are no longer metaphorical. But, as anthropologist John L. Jackson has noted, <strong>“seeing through another person’s eyes is not the same thing as actually seeing that person. In fact, one precludes the other, by definition, unless the gaze is (tellingly) merely into a mirror.”</strong> Being the other, conceived of in this way, is an extension of what bell hooks calls “eating the other.” [consuming the other as a form of pain tourism]&gt;insert head exploding emoji&lt; Tech designers have created actual headsets that we can don, our physical body in one world as our mind travels through another. Or is that really how it works? By simply changing what (as opposed to how) we see, do we really leave behind all our assumptions and prior experiences as we journey into virtual reality? Perhaps <strong>we overestimate how much our literal sight dictates our understanding of race and inequity </strong>more broadly? Sight is completely overestimated. We've become so accustomed to see suffering (as an external experience), simple things such as walking past a homeless person are completely normal. I wonder if that renders our understanding of inequality to the superficial. What injustices / unequity are invisible to the 'eye'? Not sure if that goes off Benjamin's point ...</li>
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<li>I am reminded of a study by sociologist Osagie Obasogie, author of Blinded by Sight, in which he interviewed people who were blind from birth, asking them about their experiences of race. He found that, like everyone else, they had learned to “see” – that is, perceive – racial distinctions and hierarchies through a variety of senses and narratives that did not depend on actual sight. (ah! other ways to sense hierarchy) From this, Obasogie compels us to question two things: sight as an objective transmitter of reality and colorblindness as a viable legal framework and social ideology. If blind people admit to seeing race, why do sighted people pretend not see it? mic drop In his words, “our seemingly objective engagements with the world around us are subordinate to a faith that orients our visual experience (would be a great exercise to work through what forces we are subordinate to) and, moreover, produces our ability to see certain things. Seeing is not believing. Rather, <strong>to believe, in a sense, is to see</strong>.” i see it when i believe it።</li>
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<li>So how can we apply this lesson to the promises surrounding VR? Even as we are seeing and experiencing something different, we do not simply discard our prior perceptions of the world. &lt;&lt; What? / and what if the sentence was: even if we are seeing and experiencing something exactly the same, ... ? (so 1: i don't understand the sentence, that's why i asked 'what?" 2. what if we flip the sentence around focusing on the thing we're seeing that we don't experience the same way, bc of beliefs e.g., what would follow after the comma?)One of the problems with VR is that it can present another opportunity for “poverty porn” and cultural tourism that reinforces current power dynamics between those who do the seeing and those who are watched. ꘏</li>
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<li>Even so, what makes and will continue to make VR and other empathy machines so appealing, not just for big business but also for numerous NGOs, the United Nations, and the UNICEF, which are using it to fundraise for human rights campaigns (ugh), is that <strong>they seem to offer a technical fix</strong> (so, seem to, but don't, right?) for deep-seated divisions that continue to rip the social fabric. “For instance, there is growing buzz around using VR for “immersive career and vocational training” for prisoners to gain job and life skills prior to release. At first glance, we might be tempted to count this as an abolitionist tool that works to undo the carceral apparatus by equipping former prisoners with valuable skills and opportunities. But what will the job market be like for former prisoners who have used VR? Research shows that there is widespread discrimination in the labor market, especially against African Americans convicted of a felony. And the labor market is already shaped by a technology that seeks to sort out those who are convicted of crimes, or even arrested, regardless of race. A US National Employment Law Project report shows that a staggering number of people – 65 million – “need not apply” for jobs from the numerous companies who outsource background checks to firms that, reportedly, look “just” at the facts (arrested? convicted?). When such technological fixes are used by employers to make hiring decisions in the name of efficiency, there is little opportunity for a former felon, including those who have used VR, to garner the empathy of an employer who otherwise might have been willing to ponder over the circumstances of an arrest or conviction.</li>
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<li>Given the likelihood that many of those who have been incarcerated will be discriminated against in the labor market as it currently operates, the question remains: who is actually profiting from VR-training for prisoners? And how does this technical fix subdue the call for more far-reaching aims, such as to weaken the carceral apparatus or to reimagine how the labor market operates?</li>
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<li>In fact, VR is more likely employed to generate greater empathy for officers than, say, for people who are the object of police harassment and violence. According to a report published by a website geared to law enforcement, VR is a “public relations tool for strengthening public opinion of law enforcement because the technology allows a user to virtually walk in a cop’s shoes … police agencies could bring VR into classrooms and community centers so the public can experience firsthand the challenges police officers face on patrol.” If even empathy machines are enrolled in the New Jim Code, <strong>what do abolitionist tools look like?</strong> What does an emancipatory approach to tech entail? <strong></strong>
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<strong>Some conversation starters... (feel free to add your own)</strong>
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<br>߸ What can empathy be at the service of when prompted by businesses operating under capitalism? <strong>(LINE 7)</strong>
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<br>። Thinking about the quote from Osagie Obasogie "<em>Seeing is not believing. Rather, to believe, in a sense, is to see</em>." How could we re-position ourselves and our "beliefs" / truths if we consider this comment? <strong>(LINE 17) be more aware of and practice sympathy? trying not the be the centre of our own existence?</strong>
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<br>꘏ Poverty porn reinforcing power dynamics ... our obsession with VR ... I am curious to think about what it means for the art world to be so obsessed with this VR shit ... VR as escapism ? <strong>(LINE 19)</strong>
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<li>[ref: 'Carne Y Arena'. VR installation re: mexican border. In Amsterdam 2018.</li>
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<a href="https://www.lacma.org/art/exhibition/alejandro-g-inarritu-carne-y-arena-virtually-present-physically-invisible" rel="noreferrer noopener">https://www.lacma.org/art/exhibition/alejandro-g-inarritu-carne-y-arena-virtually-present-physically-invisible</a>] the artist here writes "<em>My intention was to experiment with VR technology to explore the human condition in an attempt to break the dictatorship of the frame, within which things are just observed, and claim the space to allow the visitor to go through a direct experience walking in the immigrants’ feet, under their skin, and into their hearts.</em>" How do you feel about that? Into their hearts!</li>
<li>It sounds rather violent. And without knowing the project too well, just from this line, it does seem like a perfect illustration as to how not only the tech industry is benefitting from "poverty porn" or "pain tourism" but also the art world.</li>
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<strong></strong> Is empathy even a desirable requirement for social change? <strong>(LINE 25)</strong>
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<li>I think trust is a better fuel for social relations; trust the other when they say they are hurting instead of constantly requiring proof after proof after proof. There's enough proof, what else is needed?</li>
<li>that is a nice way to think about it. I am remembering articles surfacing during peak covid times about the racial bias towards the pain of minority people, particularly in the uk. None white people's "proof of pain" is not taken as seriously as white people's "pain" by medical staff. Good point! It also makes me think of the horrible images circulating on social media of the dead bodies of Black people in the US. It felt very perverse to have access to that or to see these digital images regurgitated by various platforms (mainly Twitter).</li>
<li>Yes re: trust! This idea of trust also flows back to Glissant's idea of the right to opacity I think, where we should be able to accept what we don't understand. To trust also what we don't understand in order to be able to live &amp; work next to one another. ah yes very nice to bring that in.</li>
<li>in therapy circles it isn't, sympathy is though. empathy can be a way of diverting from your own problems/responsibilities and even obstructing meaningful connection. ooh that is an interesting perspective, diversion.</li>
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Selling Empathy
Empathy talk is everywhere. I have used it myself as shorthand, as a way to index the lack of social cohesion and justice (is that what empathy is?) I once heard a really nice description of empathy, & how it differs from sympathy & pity. Pity = looking down on someone and feeling sorry. Sympathy = sitting across from someone and saying 'I understand'. Empathy = the ability to crawl into someone else's skin & truly feel what that person is experiencing. They probably said it much more poetic way then I just did but that 'bout sums it up.I think they work for the text later on, with this VR stuff. I think we use empathy when really we mean sympathy, because we rarely feel what others feel., and as a gentler way to invoke the need for solidarity. Empathy is woven more and more into the marketing of tech products. (and design education)all education if we read on. Since when was that a tick box for curriculum? I participate in a lot of conferences for primary and secondary school educators and I see how the product expos at these events promise these teachers’ that gadgets and software will cultivate empathy in students. Virtual reality (VR) technology in particular is routinely described as an “empathy machine” because of the way it allows us to move through someone else’s world. Perhaps it does, in some cases. But, as some critics emphasize, this rhetoric creates a moral imperative to sell headsets and to consume human anguish, and in the process “pain is repurposed as a site of economic production”!!!all our natrual resources, minerals and emotions can be exploited:
“Imagine a VR live stream of a police killing. This, tragically, will soon cease to be science fiction: within years, you will be able to experience an extremely convincing simulation of what it’s like to be murdered by a cop fuuuuuck wtf??. Will this lead to the cop’s conviction, or to meaningful criminal justice reform? Recent history suggests the answer is no. But the content will probably go viral, as its affective intensity generates high levels of user engagement. And this virality will generate revenue for the company that owns the platform.”:(
Empathy makes businesses grow. In the first quarter of 2016 alone, venture capitalists invested almost $1.2 billion in VR technologies, almost 50 percent more than in the previous quarter. In 2017, following the devasting hurricane in Puerto Rico, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg used the company’s VR app to “visit” the island as part of Facebook’s partnership with the Red Cross recovery effort. (i remember this, and how gross it was; something else that comes to mind is the viral image of zuckerberg prancing around down a corridor during a conference while everyone else was wearing a VR headset) While Zuckerberg was immersed in the scene, those watching the live feed saw his cartoon avatar touring through the wreckage alongside another company executive who, at one point, comments: “it’s crazy to feel like you’re in the middle of it.”(omg sounds more like disaster tourism; wreckage from the comfort of your own home if you're rich!)20 In response to criticism, Zuckerberg apologized by saying:
“One of the most powerful features of VR is empathy. My goal here was to show how VR can raise awareness and help us see what’s happening in different parts of the world. I also wanted to share the news of our partnership with the Red Cross to help with the recovery. Reading some of the comments, I realize this wasn’t clear, and I’m sorry to anyone this offended.this isn't really an apology for the act. It's an apology for someone else's emotional response”߸ so frustrating... when the ceo of such an influential company is unable to apologize for his own actions and lead by example. also in the end it's still the individual's own rush or whatever it is they're getting from such a vr experience. very good point. has little to nothing to do with sympathy or being sympathetic.
While some observers said the problem was that Zuckerberg’s immersive experience was not reflected in the cartoonish portrayal that viewers were witnessing, others have called into question the very idea of VR as “empathy-inducing. As in other “awareness-raising experiences where viewers get a firsthand view of war, sickness, or other forms of suffering,” good intentions are no safeguard against harm or exploitation. As one critic observed:
"The rhetoric of the empathy machine asks us to endorse technology without questioning the politics of its construction or who profits from it … Do you really need to wear a VR headset in order to empathize with someone? Can’t you just fucking listen to them and believe them? You need to be entertained as well? (yess! so well put) Are you sure this isn’t about you? word … I don’t want your empathy, I want justice!”
When I ask my students to question their assumptions about various issues, I often use the analogy of “lenses” – encouraging a different lens so that we may look anew at all that we take for granted. Well, now, the lenses are no longer metaphorical. But, as anthropologist John L. Jackson has noted, “seeing through another person’s eyes is not the same thing as actually seeing that person. In fact, one precludes the other, by definition, unless the gaze is (tellingly) merely into a mirror.” Being the other, conceived of in this way, is an extension of what bell hooks calls “eating the other.” [consuming the other as a form of pain tourism]>insert head exploding emoji< Tech designers have created actual headsets that we can don, our physical body in one world as our mind travels through another. Or is that really how it works? By simply changing what (as opposed to how) we see, do we really leave behind all our assumptions and prior experiences as we journey into virtual reality? Perhaps we overestimate how much our literal sight dictates our understanding of race and inequity more broadly? Sight is completely overestimated. We've become so accustomed to see suffering (as an external experience), simple things such as walking past a homeless person are completely normal. I wonder if that renders our understanding of inequality to the superficial. What injustices / unequity are invisible to the 'eye'? Not sure if that goes off Benjamin's point ...
I am reminded of a study by sociologist Osagie Obasogie, author of Blinded by Sight, in which he interviewed people who were blind from birth, asking them about their experiences of race. He found that, like everyone else, they had learned to “see” – that is, perceive – racial distinctions and hierarchies through a variety of senses and narratives that did not depend on actual sight. (ah! other ways to sense hierarchy) From this, Obasogie compels us to question two things: sight as an objective transmitter of reality and colorblindness as a viable legal framework and social ideology. If blind people admit to seeing race, why do sighted people pretend not see it? mic drop In his words, “our seemingly objective engagements with the world around us are subordinate to a faith that orients our visual experience (would be a great exercise to work through what forces we are subordinate to) and, moreover, produces our ability to see certain things. Seeing is not believing. Rather, to believe, in a sense, is to see.” i see it when i believe it።
So how can we apply this lesson to the promises surrounding VR? Even as we are seeing and experiencing something different, we do not simply discard our prior perceptions of the world. << What? / and what if the sentence was: even if we are seeing and experiencing something exactly the same, ... ? (so 1: i don't understand the sentence, that's why i asked 'what?" 2. what if we flip the sentence around focusing on the thing we're seeing that we don't experience the same way, bc of beliefs e.g., what would follow after the comma?)One of the problems with VR is that it can present another opportunity for “poverty porn” and cultural tourism that reinforces current power dynamics between those who do the seeing and those who are watched. ꘏
Even so, what makes and will continue to make VR and other empathy machines so appealing, not just for big business but also for numerous NGOs, the United Nations, and the UNICEF, which are using it to fundraise for human rights campaigns (ugh), is that they seem to offer a technical fix (so, seem to, but don't, right?) for deep-seated divisions that continue to rip the social fabric. “For instance, there is growing buzz around using VR for “immersive career and vocational training” for prisoners to gain job and life skills prior to release. At first glance, we might be tempted to count this as an abolitionist tool that works to undo the carceral apparatus by equipping former prisoners with valuable skills and opportunities. But what will the job market be like for former prisoners who have used VR? Research shows that there is widespread discrimination in the labor market, especially against African Americans convicted of a felony. And the labor market is already shaped by a technology that seeks to sort out those who are convicted of crimes, or even arrested, regardless of race. A US National Employment Law Project report shows that a staggering number of people – 65 million – “need not apply” for jobs from the numerous companies who outsource background checks to firms that, reportedly, look “just” at the facts (arrested? convicted?). When such technological fixes are used by employers to make hiring decisions in the name of efficiency, there is little opportunity for a former felon, including those who have used VR, to garner the empathy of an employer who otherwise might have been willing to ponder over the circumstances of an arrest or conviction.
Given the likelihood that many of those who have been incarcerated will be discriminated against in the labor market as it currently operates, the question remains: who is actually profiting from VR-training for prisoners? And how does this technical fix subdue the call for more far-reaching aims, such as to weaken the carceral apparatus or to reimagine how the labor market operates?
In fact, VR is more likely employed to generate greater empathy for officers than, say, for people who are the object of police harassment and violence. According to a report published by a website geared to law enforcement, VR is a “public relations tool for strengthening public opinion of law enforcement because the technology allows a user to virtually walk in a cop’s shoes … police agencies could bring VR into classrooms and community centers so the public can experience firsthand the challenges police officers face on patrol.” If even empathy machines are enrolled in the New Jim Code, what do abolitionist tools look like? What does an emancipatory approach to tech entail? ፥
Some conversation starters... (feel free to add your own)
߸ What can empathy be at the service of when prompted by businesses operating under capitalism? (LINE 7)
። Thinking about the quote from Osagie Obasogie "Seeing is not believing. Rather, to believe, in a sense, is to see." How could we re-position ourselves and our "beliefs" / truths if we consider this comment? (LINE 17) be more aware of and practice sympathy? trying not the be the centre of our own existence?
꘏ Poverty porn reinforcing power dynamics ... our obsession with VR ... I am curious to think about what it means for the art world to be so obsessed with this VR shit ... VR as escapism ? (LINE 19)
[ref: 'Carne Y Arena'. VR installation re: mexican border. In Amsterdam 2018.
https://www.lacma.org/art/exhibition/alejandro-g-inarritu-carne-y-arena-virtually-present-physically-invisible] the artist here writes "My intention was to experiment with VR technology to explore the human condition in an attempt to break the dictatorship of the frame, within which things are just observed, and claim the space to allow the visitor to go through a direct experience walking in the immigrants’ feet, under their skin, and into their hearts." How do you feel about that? Into their hearts!
It sounds rather violent. And without knowing the project too well, just from this line, it does seem like a perfect illustration as to how not only the tech industry is benefitting from "poverty porn" or "pain tourism" but also the art world.
፥ Is empathy even a desirable requirement for social change? (LINE 25)
I think trust is a better fuel for social relations; trust the other when they say they are hurting instead of constantly requiring proof after proof after proof. There's enough proof, what else is needed?
that is a nice way to think about it. I am remembering articles surfacing during peak covid times about the racial bias towards the pain of minority people, particularly in the uk. None white people's "proof of pain" is not taken as seriously as white people's "pain" by medical staff. Good point! It also makes me think of the horrible images circulating on social media of the dead bodies of Black people in the US. It felt very perverse to have access to that or to see these digital images regurgitated by various platforms (mainly Twitter).
Yes re: trust! This idea of trust also flows back to Glissant's idea of the right to opacity I think, where we should be able to accept what we don't understand. To trust also what we don't understand in order to be able to live & work next to one another. ah yes very nice to bring that in.
in therapy circles it isn't, sympathy is though. empathy can be a way of diverting from your own problems/responsibilities and even obstructing meaningful connection. ooh that is an interesting perspective, diversion.
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<strong>Read &amp; Repair feat. <em>Race After Technology</em>, by Ruha Benjamin</strong>
<br>&lt;<a href="http://varia.zone/en/rr-stone-throw-1.html" rel="noreferrer noopener">http://varia.zone/en/rr-stone-throw-1.html</a>&gt;<br>Thursday, 23rd July 2020. 16:00-18:00 CEST<br>
<br>
<strong>Housekeeping</strong>
<br>
<br>Welcome to our pad for the workshop.<br>
<br>A few things you should know about this space:<br>- The pads are not listed on search engines, but anyone who knows its URL is welcome to read and edit it. <br>- Varia makes its own backups, meaning the contents of all pads sit on our hard drives potentially indefinitely.<br>- The availability of the pads is subject to cosmic events, spilled drinks and personal energies.<br>- <strong>Both the physical and digital spaces of Varia are subject to our Code of Conduct</strong> &lt;<a href="https://varia.zone/en/pages/code-of-conduct.html" rel="noreferrer noopener">https://varia.zone/en/pages/code-of-conduct.html</a>&gt;<br>
<br>We have some guidelines for pad use here:<br>
<strong>» Be supportive. </strong>Be curious. Consider that nobody knows you besides what you write. Meaning, be extra nice with your words. <br>
<strong>» If you have a question, ask.</strong> This is an experiment in reading together from a distance.<strong>» Don't delete text </strong>from other people, just add.<br>
<br>Today we are going to read <strong>parts of the chapter</strong>, <strong>
<em>Retooling Solidarity, Reimagining Justice</em>
</strong> from <strong>
<em>Race After Technology</em>, by Ruha Benjamin</strong>
<br>
<strong>We are going to post the text from the book into the pad</strong>, and will send you a download link to the whole book at the end of the workshop.<br>We are not reading the whole book and we are not starting at the beginning.<br>
<br>Today is an experiment in distanced collective reading.<br>You can read at your own pace and / or we have a number of exercises prepared that we can use to start conversation.<br>amy, cristina and julie will add the exercises and quotes on the pad intermittently.<br>
<br>
<strong>We will converse through typed out language here on the pad</strong>.<br>
<br>========================================================================================================================<br>
<br>
<strong>Introduction coming now!</strong>
<br>
<br>Today we are going to read <strong>parts of the chapter</strong>, <strong>Retooling Solidarity, Reimagining Justice</strong> from <strong>
<em>Race After Technology</em>, by Ruha Benjamin</strong>
<br>You can download it laterrr.<br>We are not reading the whole book and we are not starting at the beginning.<br>
<br>Today is an experiment in distanced collective reading.<br>You can read at your own pace and / or we have a number of exercises prepared that we can use to start conversation.<br>amy will add the exercises and quotes on the pad intermittently.<br>
<br>We will converse through typed out language here on the pad.<br>Parts of our typing will go towards <strong>
<em>stone throw</em>, a temporary online work to share our resources and reflections</strong>.<br>
<br>In this process of learning together, we wish that our process is recorded as a way to share it with others, but that, like us, it takes a different shape with time. This is why the debris we gather today from the workshop will be recorded with your consent and put on a website (as a txt file), where each time it is viewed, the traces we leave today will be corrupted until eventually they will stop being accessible. The more they are viewed, the faster they fade away.<br>At the end of the sites life, only links to our references will remain.<br>
<br>Our Debris form an experimental exercise in consent giving. We will explain this again when when we come to the last exercise, but we want to highlight now that no text will be used without checking with you.<br>_DEBRIS_ consent<br>
<s>_DEBRIS_</s> no consent given<br>
<br>
<strong>Exercise 1</strong>
<br>Close Reading of the Introduction to <strong>Chapter 5</strong>
<strong>- Retooling Solidarity, Reimagining Justice</strong>
<br>
<br>We will intermittently post 1 section at a time from Ruha Benjamin's introduction to the chapter.<br>As you read, you may wish to annotate or contextualise the writing in your own experience. We would like to add our comments around or inside of the text as a way to bring it closer to us.<br>We will remove the colour of the paragraphs, so we can see our personal colours, and recognise that other voices are on the pad. We welcome discussion.<br>
<br>
<strong>We will be with this text for 45 minutes.</strong>
<br>
<br>========================================================================================================================<br>
<br>
<strong>Chapter 5</strong>
<br>
<strong>Retooling Solidarity, Reimagining Justice</strong>
<br>
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<li>The power of the <strong>New Jim Code</strong> [ref below] is that it allows racist habits and logics to enter through the backdoor of tech design, in which the humans who create the algorithms are hidden from view. In the previous chapters I explored a range of discriminatory designs – some that explicitly work to amplify hierarchies, many that ignore and thus replicate social divisions, and a number that aim to fix racial bias but end up doing the opposite. In one sense, these forms of discriminatory design – engineered inequity, default discrimination, coded exposure, and technological benevolence – fall on a spectrum that ranges from most obvious to oblivious in the way it helps produce social inequity. But, in a way, these differences are also an artifact of marketing, mission statements, and willingness of designers to own up to their impact. It will be tempting, then, to look for comparisons throughout this text and ask: “Is this approach better than that?” But in writing this book here?  I have admittedly been more interested in connections rather than in comparisons; in how this seemingly more beneficent approach to bypassing bias in tech relates to that more indifferent or avowedly inequitable approach “better than that?” [and here] oops! But in writing this book I have admittedly been more interested in connections rather than in comparisons; in how this seemingly more beneficent approach to bypassing bias in tech relates to that more indifferent or avowedly inequitable approach; in entangling the seeming differences rather than disentangling for the sake of easy distinctions between good and bad tech.</li>
</ul>
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<br>The New Jim code refers to the Jim Crow laws which reinforced segregation in the southern states of the US, the New Jim Code is the authors name for continued segregation in digital technologies<br>Entangling seeming differences, distinctions not clear cut. <br>
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<li>On closer inspection, I find that the varying dimensions of the New Jim Code draw upon a shared set of methods that make coded inequity desirable and profitable to a wide array of social actors across many settings; <strong>it appears with the emphasis on appears because it has many subjective inputs to rise above human subjectivity</strong> (it has impartiality) because it is purportedly tailored to individuals, not groups (it has personalization/customisation), and “ranks people according to merit, not prejudice (or positioning) – all within the framework of a forward-looking (i.e. predictive) enterprise that promises social progress. These <strong>four features</strong> of coded inequity prop up unjust infrastructures (prop up, and also generate), but not necessarily to the same extent at all times and in all places, and definitely not without eliciting countercodings that retool solidarity and rethink justice. </li>
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</ul>Has the author mentioned examples in the prior chapters? Would love some ref .Yes, she mentions a few discriminatory designs. We will link the book at the end. e.g Is it web based / networked / an app ? the book? the 'design'. I am imagining some kind of interface but have trouble thinking into what else... there is a description of an app "appolition" below as example. Yes, one other such example is "new artificial intelligence techniques for vetting job applicants" which are biased against POC or women. Cool thanks! these programs are based on data of the past and therefore have the prejudices of the past built into them. Data is not neutral but biased by previous ways of collecting precisely<br>
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<li>These forms of resistance are what I think of as <strong>abolitionist tools</strong> for the New Jim Code. And, as with abolitionist practices of a previous era, not all manner of gettin’ free should be exposed. Recall that Frederick Douglass, ( <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Douglass" rel="noreferrer noopener">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Douglass</a> ) the philosopher of fugitivity, reprimanded those who revealed the routes that fugitives took to escape slavery [makes me think of the dogma that all information should be free that some people profess], declaring that these supposed allies turned the underground railroad into the upperground railroad. Likewise, some of the efforts of those resisting the New Jim Code necessitate <strong>strategic discretion </strong>[[keep]], while others may be effectively tweeted around the world in an instant.</li>
<li>ahh here..</li>
<li>Thirty minutes after proposing an idea for an app “that converts your daily change into bail money to free black people,” Compton, California-born Black trans tech developer Dr. Kortney Ziegler added: <strong>“It could be called Appolition”</strong> (Figure 5.1). The name is a riff on abolition and a reference to <u>a growing movement toward divesting resources from policing and prisons and reinvesting in education, employment, mental health, and a broader support system needed to cultivate safe and thriving communities</u>. Calls for abolition are never simply about bringing harmful systems to an end but also about envisioning new ones. After all, the etymology of “abolition” includes Latin root words for “destroy” (abolere) and “grow” (olere).(do you have to have one for the other to exist, destruction and growth? a cycle?)</li>
<li></li>
<li>
<a href="http://82.199.133.204/files/Screenshot%202020-07-21%20at%2015.45.24.png" rel="noreferrer noopener">http://82.199.133.204/files/Screenshot%202020-07-21%20at%2015.45.24.png</a>
</li>
<li>
<em>Figure 5.1 Appolition</em>
</li>
<li>
<em>Source: Twitter @fakerapper July 23, 2017 at 2:58 p.m.</em>
</li>
<li></li>
<li>And, lest we be tempted to dismiss prison abolition as a far-fetched dream (or nightmare, depends)(oh, why the contradiction? fear of the unknown?), <strong>it is also worth considering how those who monopolize power and privilege already live in an abolitionist reality!</strong> As executive director of Law for Black Lives, Marbre Stahly-Butts, asserts:</li>
<li>
<ul class="indent">
<li><em>There’s a lot of abolitionist zones in the US. You go to the Hamptons, its abolitionist. You go to the Upper West Side, its abolitionist. You go to places in California where the medium income is over a million dollars, abolitionist. There’s not a cop to be seen. And so, <strong>the reality is that rich White people get to deal with all of their problems in ways that don’t involve the police</strong>, or cages, or drug tests or things like that. The reality is that people actually know that police and cages :( don’t keep you safe, if it’s your son or your daughter".</em>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li></li>
<li>As a political movement, prison abolition builds on the work of slavery abolitionists of a previous era and tools like Appolition bring the movement into the digital arena. Days after the original tweet first circulated, Ziegler partnered with Tiffany Mikell to launch the app and began collaborating with the National Bail Out movement, a network of organizations that attempt to end cash bail and pretrial detention and to get funds into the hands of local activists who post bail. In September 2017 Ziegler was planning a kickoff event with the modest goal of enrolling 600 people. But after the launch in November the project garnered 8,000 enrollments, which landed Appolition in the top ten most innovative companies in 2018. The whole system of bail for (minor) crimes should be reconsidered. You are not guilty yet but already paying. This targets the poor.  </li>
<li>In general, for what I can connect between this and Europe, the very fact that prisonners also need financial resources to access decent food and sanitary products also reinforces disparities in resources. The whole system accomodates better people with revenues.</li>
<li>And probably if you don't have money in prison you are vulnerable to other abuses which may lead you to the need of self-defense and new charges against you. Hhhm how do you think?</li>
<li></li>
<li>More important for our discussion is that Appolition is a technology with an emancipatory ethos, a tool of solidarity that directs resources to getting people literally free. In fact, many White people who have signed up say that they see it as a form of reparation, (I am not sure how I feel about 'repair', it still seems heirarchical?/fixing the racist system? but the app seems really important, I kind of feel like it is a way to make a problem visable. To establish a knowledge about how problematic the system is and showing that, as the code do not do, as a group you are able to change politics...but yeah, then the word repair feels a bit off...)(I read 'repair' differently to 'reparation')I think I am scared of white people paying off their guilt instead of doing other forms of activism, or trying to change the fucked up system. Though this is a neccessary intermediate stage for change.) so true</li>
<li>also, ultimately the money is going back into an oppressive system, so it's not really repairing, looks more like damage control</li>
<li>below it is explained that the bail money can be reused as it is paid back by the system when you are not guilty or do time (indeed ta)</li>
<li>[btw are we talking about reparations in general or in this particular example?] it reads like personal reparations instead of institutional</li>
<li>[right! i was thinking of the state paying reparations] i can understand that because I also never thought of it in a personal context.Maybe I could wish that it would be more of an awakaning among white people reather than a reperation. It reads a bit like white people again do not take a close look at them selfs. But maybe it is also like a thinking "error" in a way, that within a western way of thinking we like to look for a "fix". yes and you can do this fast and easily, just donating the money, pop! (and you keep your distance still, you do not have to get to know any black people, you can just be that western, white, colonial "saviour" again):( One thing that will fix it, make the bad go away, so maybe I am curious how then the autor links this to the erliser description of looking at relations rather than comparing. good thing to remember yes. Likw what is the relations that accure for whit people useing the app?</li>
<li></li>
<li></li>
<li>one small way to counteract the fact that the carceral system uses software that codes for inequity. To date, Appolition has raised $230,000, that money being directed to local organizations whose posted bails have freed over 65 people. As the National Bail Out network explains, “[e]veryday an average of 700,000 people are condemned to local jails and separated from their families. A majority of them are there simply because they cannot afford to pay bail.” :( this part connect really well with the yes we mean literally abolish the police article.</li>
<li></li>
<li>When Ziegler and I sat on a panel together at the 2018 <strong>Allied Media</strong> Conference [this is a great organisation btw], he addressed audience concerns that the app is diverting even more money to a bloated carceral system. As Ziegler clarified, money is returned to the depositor after a case is complete, so donations are continuously recycled to help individuals. Interest in the app has grown so much that Appolition has launched a new version, which can handle a larger volume of donations and help direct funds to more organizations.</li>
<li></li>
<li>But the news is not all good. As Ziegler explained, the motivation behind ventures like Appolition can be mimicked by people who do not have an abolitionist commitment. He described a venture that the rapper Jay-Z is investing [for profit? i.e not donating to.I think Promise makes money because it charges. aargh. This is so depressing :( why is Jay-Z investing in sth like this??] i guess he hasn't heard of appolition? he could've freed lots of ppl by now :'( we should tell him! ok lets drop him an email on it! :)  Jay-Z also tried to make money out of Occupy so this guy has a record of pretending to stand for a good cause or political issue but in reality is just trying to earn more money. millions in, called Promise. Although Jay-Z and others call it a <strong>“decarceration start-up”</strong> (bleurgh) lol my thought exactlyI'm sick too. because it addresses the problem of pretrial detention, which impacts disproportionately Black and Latinx people who cannot afford bail, Promise is in the business of <strong>tracking individuals</strong> [never a good idea] [tracking them going to places that are over subscribed and underfunded. Putting your money in the wrong place Jaaaay] via the app and GPS monitoring. And, whereas a county can spend up to $200 a day holding someone in jail, Promise can charge $17.8 [holding them in another kind of jail, so this becomes the CIC toch?] This is why the organization BYP100 (Black Youth Project 100) issued a warning that Promise</li>
<li>
<ul class="indent">
<li>
<em>"helps expand the scope of what the Prison Industrial Complex is and will be in the future. The digital sphere and tech world of the 2000’s [sic] is the next sector to have a stronghold around incarceration, and will mold what incarceration looks like and determine the terrain on which prison abolitionists have to fight as a result."</em>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li></li>
<li>BYP100 extends the critique of abolitionist organizations like <strong>Critical Resistance </strong>[we'll be using one of their scripts on Sunday], which describes “the overlapping interests of government and industry that use surveillance, policing, and imprisonment as <strong>solutions to what are, in actuality, economic, social, and political ‘problems</strong>’” (reading this makes me think abt the question 'whether destruction is necessary for growth' again, &amp; in truth I don't see another option)destruction doesn't have to be a bad thing, pow! BOOM BOOM It depends on how you see radical change. If you want to change the education system you might need to abandon schools in their current form. otherwise it will just be small changes but still classrooms and the associated architecture that has little room for teaching otherwise Yes exactly, &amp; I think this is the big frustration with any kind of established institution trying to make changes within their structures; they don't work, because the structures are inherently broken &amp; unjust. Abandon &amp; abolition is not destruction, but it's similar? mmm nice. though we can't abandon the PIC we have to take it down/apart. Yeah &amp; maybe this is the issue with all (most) 'institutions' bc they belong to systems of oppression, abandoning a school doesn't mean the structures change? yes. But if you're a head teacher you don't want to destroy your school haha.</li>
<li>under the description<strong> prison–industrial complex (PIC)</strong>. The Corrections Project[<a href="http://correctionsproject.com/prisonmaps/pic4.htm" rel="noreferrer noopener">http://correctionsproject.com/prisonmaps/pic4.htm</a>] has created a map of all these interests, with prisons and jails at the core and extending to law enforcement, prison guard unions, prison construction companies and vendors, courts, urban and rural developers, corporations, the media, and more.</li>
<li></li>
<li>It is important to note that there is debate about whether “PIC” is an accurate and useful descriptor. Some prefer <strong>“corrections industrial complex,”</strong> [CIC] to draw attention to probation and surveillance as the fastest growing [because most profitable] part of the industry. Others offer a more far-reaching critique by questioning how industrial and complex the PIC really is since the corrections arena is still overwhelmingly public – the budget is less than 1 percent of the GDP, less than 0.5 percent of the incarcerated being employed by private firms. It is also an overwhelmingly <strong>decentralized enterprise</strong>, run at the local, county, and state levels rather than masterminded by a central government entity, as is for example the Pentagon vis-à-vis the military–industrial complex.</li>
<li></li>
<li>Even so, the term “PIC” has been useful as a rhetorical device for drawing widespread attention to the exponential growth of prison and policing since 1980 and for highlighting the multiple investments of a wide range of entities. Profit, in this context, is made not only in cash, but also in political power, property, TV ratings, and other resources from economic to symbolic, including the fact that many companies now invest in e-corrections as a fix for prison overcrowding. [venture capitalist PIC]</li>
<li></li>
<li>If both Appolition and Promise apply digital tools to helping people who cannot afford bail to get out of cages, why is Promise a problem for those who support prison abolition?<strong> Because it creates a powerful mechanism that makes it easier to put people back in; </strong>...promising not to let u out of their sight! and, rather than turning away from the carceral apparatus, it extends it into everyday life. I think this is a valid point. That is is also importnat to work for that people will never have to go back into jail again. Like work needs to be done on several levels at the same time. And maybe then it is important to talk about relations again. do we need systems totally outside of the current carceral system that we use?</li>
<li></li>
<li>Whereas the money crowdfunded for Appolition operates like an endowment that is used to bail people out, Promise is an investment and collaborates with [+extends the reach of] law enforcement. The company, which received $3 million in venture capital, is not in the business of decarceration but is part of the <strong>“technocorrections”</strong> [strong term, keeper] industry, which seeks to capitalize on very real concerns about “mass incarceration and the political momentum of social justice organizing. Products like Promise make it easier and more cost-effective for people to be tracked and thrown back into jail for technical violations. One “promise” here is to the state – that the company can keep track of individuals – and another to the taxpayer – that the company can cut costs. As for the individuals held captive, the burden of nonstop surveillance is arguably better than jail, but a digital cell is still a form of high-tech social control. all surveillance should be scrutinized as it is basically a form of distrust of citizens and seldom works for their protection. Protection against the state is necessary. or our own surveillance on the state?! the Tweede Kamer is continually misinformed or uninformed which makes the option of checking the state a lot more difficult. So the government withdraws from surveillance while at the same time surveilling its citizens more and more.</li>
<li> Promise, in this way, is exemplary of the New Jim Code; and it is dangerous and insidious precisely because it is packaged as social betterment. Scary :/ This, along with the weight of Jay Z’s celebrity, will make it difficult to challenge Promise (actually I think he got some backlash when peopel realised people would end up with bracelets). But if this company is to genuinely contribute contribute to decarceration,<strong> it would need to shrink the carceral apparatus, not extend it and make it more encompassing</strong>. After all, prison conglomerates such as Geo Group and CoreCivic are proving especially adept at reconfiguring their business investments, leaving prisons and detention centers and turning to tech alternatives, for instance ankle monitors and other digital tracking devices. In some cases the companies that hold lucrative government contracts to imprison asylum seekers are the same ones that the US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) hires to provide social services to these very people, as they continue to be monitored remotely. While not being locked in a cage is an improvement, the alternative is <strong>a “form of coded inequity and carceral control</strong>; and it is vital that people committed to social justice look beyond the shiny exterior of organizations that peddle such reforms. (starting to get some Foucault/Deleuze vibes) bound to happen dividuals.</li>
<li></li>
<li>A key tenet of prison abolition is that caging people works directly against the safety and well-being of communities because jails and prisons do not address the underlying reasons why people harm themselves and others – in fact they exacerbate the problem by making it even more difficult to obtain any of the support needed to live, work, and make amends for harms committed. Coincidentally heard a radio item about a case in the Netherlands which also discussed the bureaucracy that isn't in favor of supporting people who return to jail regularly (because they keep on finding themselves in the same circuit and quite often are also addicts unable to restrain themselves and without options thus entering a viscious circle as soon as they leave prison) with the underlying issues they need to tackle in order to change the status quo of their ending up in jail all the time. do you have the ref by any chance? I'll try to find it, it was an article i listened to on Blendle, an app to listen to news and other items. &gt;&gt; it's difficult retrieving the article, because I don't remember the title or the original source -_-' btw striking difference about the prison/emprisonment rhetoric in NL (though far from knowledgeable on the topic) is it seems to be far less focused on ethnicity/ethnic inequality. for anyone interested to read a little more I found this (Dutch source and language): <a href="https://demonitor.kro-ncrv.nl/artikelen/waarom-zoveel-gevangenen-opnieuw-in-de-fout-gaan-tien-oorzaken-van-recidive" rel="noreferrer noopener">https://demonitor.kro-ncrv.nl/artikelen/waarom-zoveel-gevangenen-opnieuw-in-de-fout-gaan-tien-oorzaken-van-recidive</a> and <a href="https://demonitor.kro-ncrv.nl/artikelen/gevangenisstraf-vergroot-vaak-kans-op-recidive" rel="noreferrer noopener">https://demonitor.kro-ncrv.nl/artikelen/gevangenisstraf-vergroot-vaak-kans-op-recidive</a> yes would also be interested, In sweden we have KRIS which stands for Criminals rights in the society, they work with this... But in the age of the New Jim Code, as BYP100 noted, this abolitionist ethos must be extended beyond the problem of caging, to our consideration of technological innovations marketed as supporting prison reform. reformist reform, not radical (as in of or to do with a root</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul> or foundation).<br>
<ul class="indent">
<li>
<ul class="indent">
<li>
<ul class="indent">
<li></li>
<li>Coding people as “risky” kicks in an entire digital apparatus that extends incarceration well beyond the prison wall.[same logic to the tracking apps that were proposed as a way to tackle COVID infections] Think of it this way. Yes, it is vital to divert money away from imprisonment to schools and public housing, if we really want to make communities stronger, safer, and more supportive for all their members. But, as Critical Resistance has argued, simply diverting resources in this way is no panacea, because schools and public housing as they currently function are an extension of the PIC (how can we get society to accept this?): many operate with a logic of carcerality and on policies that discriminate against those who have been convicted of crimes. <strong>Pouring money into them as they are will only make them more effective in their current function as institutions of social control. </strong>DESTRUCTION IS THE ONLY SOLUTION But maybe we need something else, now I am saying it a bit more in general; like the differece between revolution and reformation. Maybe we need like something totally differnt...destruction of that which is controlling? That is different for everyone ... and very discriminatory, I retract that idea. We have to look beyond the surface of what they say they do to what they actually do, in the same way in which I am calling on all of us to question the “do good” rhetoric of the tech industry. Some social anarchy is needed where education depends on enriching yourself mentally, socially and practically. A non-competitive system without grades but with a strong sense of collectivity from a diverse perspective. </li>
<li></li>
<li>For prison abolitionists, “we don’t just want better funded schools (although that might be an important step). <strong>We also demand the power to shape the programs and institutions in our communities</strong>” and to propose a new and more humane vision of how resources and technology are used. This requires us to consider not only the ends but also the means. How we get to the end matters. If the path is that private companies, celebrities, and tech innovators should cash in on the momentum of communities and organizations that challenge mass incarceration, the likelihood is that the end achieved will replicate the current social order.</li>
<li></li>
<li>
<strong>
<u>Let us shift, then, from technology as an outcome to toolmaking as a practice</u>
</strong>, so as to consider the many different types of tools needed to resist coded inequity, to build solidarity, and to engender liberation. Initiatives like Appolition offer a window into a wider arena of “design justice” that takes many forms (see Appendix), some of which I will explore below. But first allow me a reflection on the growing discourse around technology and empathy (rather than equity or justice).</li>
<li></li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>========================================================================================================================<br>This is the end of the Introduction to Chapter 5.<br>========================================================================================================================<br>
<br>For<strong> Exercise 2 </strong>
<br>First we have to make a Collective Decision.<br>There are 5 more sections of this chapter:<br>
<br>
<ul class="bullet">
<li>
<strong>Selling Empathy +1+1+1+1</strong>
<ul class="bullet">
<li>In this chapter, Ruha Benjamin discusses the claim that tech can promote more empathy, and the way it has been used to promote business growth. She mentions notably questions which arose from Mark Zuckerbeg's tone deaf Virtual Reality visit of Puerto Rico in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria. These questions include for instance the politics of VR technology construction, whether empathy necessarily relies on "seeing", turning dramatic events into entertainment, but also who are we prompted to develop empathy for through immersive experiences.</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>
<strong>Rethinking Design Thinking +1+1</strong>
<ul class="bullet">
<li>In this extract, Benjamin asks which humans are prioritised by "human centered design" approach. She questions definitions of design and design-speak, leading her to think about design as a colonising project "to the extent that it is used to describe any and everything"...</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>
<strong>Beyond Code-Switching +1+1 +1+1+1</strong>
<ul class="bullet">
<li>In this excerpt, Benjamin talks about code switching, which consists in adapting to the norms of the dominant class. This applies for instance to situations where afro american children are confronted with "standard" English. Taking the example of Yik Yak, an app that allowed to post anonymously while voting up or down and commenting on other posts within a geographically constrained area, Benjamin explores how coded speech reflects certain power dynamics. She then argues in favour of code rewriting rather than code switching before discussing the limits of expecting the tech industry to self regulate on the basis of sympathies.</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>
<strong>Audits and Other Abolitionist Tools +1</strong>
<ul class="bullet">
<li>Here, Benjamin talks about auditing experiments, which have been used to demonstrate continued discrimination in real estate and hiring practices in the post civil rights era, in relation to AI. She argues for justice-oriented, emancipatory approach to data production, analysis, and public engagement.</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<br>With the time we have left, <strong>can you write +1 next to the chapter you would like to read</strong>. You can add +1 to multiple chapters, if you are interested in more than one.<br>We will choose the most "popular" text to read.<br>Depending on group size, we may split into smaller groups and we will go to different pads, each with its own questions and chances for discussion.<strong> The exercise will continue similarly to this pad, but we made new ones for the different chapters, links to them are coming down here ...</strong>
<br>
<br>For now the most popular are<br>
<strong>Selling Empathy:</strong>
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/abolitionist_tech-selling_empathy" rel="noreferrer noopener">https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/abolitionist_tech-selling_empathy</a>
<br>and<br>
<strong>Beyond Code-Switching: </strong>
<a href="https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/abolitionist_tech-beyond_code_switching" rel="noreferrer noopener">https://pad.vvvvvvaria.org/abolitionist_tech-beyond_code_switching</a>
<br>
<br>Let's split into two equal-ish groups (5 and 6 people) to read these texts.<br>
<br>========================================================================================================================<br>
<br>
<strong>Exercise 3 (10 minutes)</strong>
<br>This exercise is adjusted because we are going over time!<br>We wanted to go over our notes, on all 3 pads.<br>We want to skim through the conversations by others in the text, and see what resonates with us.<br>
<br>If we are <strong>not</strong> happy for a comment to be published then we do a strikethrough <s>DEBRIS</s> and we will not use it as DEBRIS.<br>We want this to be a practice of consent giving from you all.<br>
<br>Our debris will be presented on a temporary online site, <em>stone throw</em>, which will be a way to share aspects of this workshop with a secondary audience - but not forever.<br>
<br>Thank you all so much for visiting us here and learning together, we really appreciate your energy and thoughts!<br>Ruha Benjamin's epub can be downloaded here: <a href="http://gen.lib.rus.ec/book/index.php?md5=9383965BB44F1EEAA77666F30B89D447" rel="noreferrer noopener">http://gen.lib.rus.ec/book/index.php?md5=9383965BB44F1EEAA77666F30B89D447</a>
<br>it's nice to have the epub but we should all think if we can also afford to buy the book and support the authors work if possible. We collectively own 1 copy but yes we should buy more! (yeah we were thinking about it as a loan for the few who joined as if it was a physical copy but it's true it is better to try to buy it if you can)<br>yes, a good point. for those who can afford it, you can buy it from: <a href="https://www.ruhabenjamin.com/race-after-technology" rel="noreferrer noopener">https://www.ruhabenjamin.com/race-after-technology</a>
<br>(just please <strong>NOT AMAZON!!</strong>):)<br>
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Read & Repair feat. Race After Technology, by Ruha Benjamin
<http://varia.zone/en/rr-stone-throw-1.html>
Thursday, 23rd July 2020. 16:00-18:00 CEST
Housekeeping
Welcome to our pad for the workshop.
A few things you should know about this space:
- The pads are not listed on search engines, but anyone who knows its URL is welcome to read and edit it.
- Varia makes its own backups, meaning the contents of all pads sit on our hard drives potentially indefinitely.
- The availability of the pads is subject to cosmic events, spilled drinks and personal energies.
- Both the physical and digital spaces of Varia are subject to our Code of Conduct <https://varia.zone/en/pages/code-of-conduct.html>
We have some guidelines for pad use here:
» Be supportive. Be curious. Consider that nobody knows you besides what you write. Meaning, be extra nice with your words.
» If you have a question, ask. This is an experiment in reading together from a distance.» Don't delete text from other people, just add.
Today we are going to read parts of the chapter, Retooling Solidarity, Reimagining Justice from Race After Technology, by Ruha Benjamin
We are going to post the text from the book into the pad, and will send you a download link to the whole book at the end of the workshop.
We are not reading the whole book and we are not starting at the beginning.
Today is an experiment in distanced collective reading.
You can read at your own pace and / or we have a number of exercises prepared that we can use to start conversation.
amy, cristina and julie will add the exercises and quotes on the pad intermittently.
We will converse through typed out language here on the pad.
========================================================================================================================
Introduction coming now!
Today we are going to read parts of the chapter, Retooling Solidarity, Reimagining Justice from Race After Technology, by Ruha Benjamin
You can download it laterrr.
We are not reading the whole book and we are not starting at the beginning.
Today is an experiment in distanced collective reading.
You can read at your own pace and / or we have a number of exercises prepared that we can use to start conversation.
amy will add the exercises and quotes on the pad intermittently.
We will converse through typed out language here on the pad.
Parts of our typing will go towards stone throw, a temporary online work to share our resources and reflections.
In this process of learning together, we wish that our process is recorded as a way to share it with others, but that, like us, it takes a different shape with time. This is why the debris we gather today from the workshop will be recorded with your consent and put on a website (as a txt file), where each time it is viewed, the traces we leave today will be corrupted until eventually they will stop being accessible. The more they are viewed, the faster they fade away.
At the end of the sites life, only links to our references will remain.
Our Debris form an experimental exercise in consent giving. We will explain this again when when we come to the last exercise, but we want to highlight now that no text will be used without checking with you.
_DEBRIS_ consent
_DEBRIS_ no consent given
Exercise 1
Close Reading of the Introduction to Chapter 5 - Retooling Solidarity, Reimagining Justice
We will intermittently post 1 section at a time from Ruha Benjamin's introduction to the chapter.
As you read, you may wish to annotate or contextualise the writing in your own experience. We would like to add our comments around or inside of the text as a way to bring it closer to us.
We will remove the colour of the paragraphs, so we can see our personal colours, and recognise that other voices are on the pad. We welcome discussion.
We will be with this text for 45 minutes.
========================================================================================================================
Chapter 5
Retooling Solidarity, Reimagining Justice
The power of the New Jim Code [ref below] is that it allows racist habits and logics to enter through the backdoor of tech design, in which the humans who create the algorithms are hidden from view. In the previous chapters I explored a range of discriminatory designs – some that explicitly work to amplify hierarchies, many that ignore and thus replicate social divisions, and a number that aim to fix racial bias but end up doing the opposite. In one sense, these forms of discriminatory design – engineered inequity, default discrimination, coded exposure, and technological benevolence – fall on a spectrum that ranges from most obvious to oblivious in the way it helps produce social inequity. But, in a way, these differences are also an artifact of marketing, mission statements, and willingness of designers to own up to their impact. It will be tempting, then, to look for comparisons throughout this text and ask: “Is this approach better than that?” But in writing this book here? I have admittedly been more interested in connections rather than in comparisons; in how this seemingly more beneficent approach to bypassing bias in tech relates to that more indifferent or avowedly inequitable approach “better than that?” [and here] oops! But in writing this book I have admittedly been more interested in connections rather than in comparisons; in how this seemingly more beneficent approach to bypassing bias in tech relates to that more indifferent or avowedly inequitable approach; in entangling the seeming differences rather than disentangling for the sake of easy distinctions between good and bad tech.
The New Jim code refers to the Jim Crow laws which reinforced segregation in the southern states of the US, the New Jim Code is the authors name for continued segregation in digital technologies
Entangling seeming differences, distinctions not clear cut.
On closer inspection, I find that the varying dimensions of the New Jim Code draw upon a shared set of methods that make coded inequity desirable and profitable to a wide array of social actors across many settings; it appears with the emphasis on appears because it has many subjective inputs to rise above human subjectivity (it has impartiality) because it is purportedly tailored to individuals, not groups (it has personalization/customisation), and “ranks people according to merit, not prejudice (or positioning) – all within the framework of a forward-looking (i.e. predictive) enterprise that promises social progress. These four features of coded inequity prop up unjust infrastructures (prop up, and also generate), but not necessarily to the same extent at all times and in all places, and definitely not without eliciting countercodings that retool solidarity and rethink justice.
Has the author mentioned examples in the prior chapters? Would love some ref .Yes, she mentions a few discriminatory designs. We will link the book at the end. e.g Is it web based / networked / an app ? the book? the 'design'. I am imagining some kind of interface but have trouble thinking into what else... there is a description of an app "appolition" below as example. Yes, one other such example is "new artificial intelligence techniques for vetting job applicants" which are biased against POC or women. Cool thanks! these programs are based on data of the past and therefore have the prejudices of the past built into them. Data is not neutral but biased by previous ways of collecting precisely
These forms of resistance are what I think of as abolitionist tools for the New Jim Code. And, as with abolitionist practices of a previous era, not all manner of gettin’ free should be exposed. Recall that Frederick Douglass, ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Douglass ) the philosopher of fugitivity, reprimanded those who revealed the routes that fugitives took to escape slavery [makes me think of the dogma that all information should be free that some people profess], declaring that these supposed allies turned the underground railroad into the upperground railroad. Likewise, some of the efforts of those resisting the New Jim Code necessitate strategic discretion [[keep]], while others may be effectively tweeted around the world in an instant.
ahh here..
Thirty minutes after proposing an idea for an app “that converts your daily change into bail money to free black people,” Compton, California-born Black trans tech developer Dr. Kortney Ziegler added: “It could be called Appolition” (Figure 5.1). The name is a riff on abolition and a reference to a growing movement toward divesting resources from policing and prisons and reinvesting in education, employment, mental health, and a broader support system needed to cultivate safe and thriving communities. Calls for abolition are never simply about bringing harmful systems to an end but also about envisioning new ones. After all, the etymology of “abolition” includes Latin root words for “destroy” (abolere) and “grow” (olere).(do you have to have one for the other to exist, destruction and growth? a cycle?)
http://82.199.133.204/files/Screenshot%202020-07-21%20at%2015.45.24.png
Figure 5.1 Appolition
Source: Twitter @fakerapper July 23, 2017 at 2:58 p.m.
And, lest we be tempted to dismiss prison abolition as a far-fetched dream (or nightmare, depends)(oh, why the contradiction? fear of the unknown?), it is also worth considering how those who monopolize power and privilege already live in an abolitionist reality! As executive director of Law for Black Lives, Marbre Stahly-Butts, asserts:
“There’s a lot of abolitionist zones in the US. You go to the Hamptons, its abolitionist. You go to the Upper West Side, its abolitionist. You go to places in California where the medium income is over a million dollars, abolitionist. There’s not a cop to be seen. And so, the reality is that rich White people get to deal with all of their problems in ways that don’t involve the police, or cages, or drug tests or things like that. The reality is that people actually know that police and cages :( don’t keep you safe, if it’s your son or your daughter".
As a political movement, prison abolition builds on the work of slavery abolitionists of a previous era and tools like Appolition bring the movement into the digital arena. Days after the original tweet first circulated, Ziegler partnered with Tiffany Mikell to launch the app and began collaborating with the National Bail Out movement, a network of organizations that attempt to end cash bail and pretrial detention and to get funds into the hands of local activists who post bail. In September 2017 Ziegler was planning a kickoff event with the modest goal of enrolling 600 people. But after the launch in November the project garnered 8,000 enrollments, which landed Appolition in the top ten most innovative companies in 2018. The whole system of bail for (minor) crimes should be reconsidered. You are not guilty yet but already paying. This targets the poor.
In general, for what I can connect between this and Europe, the very fact that prisonners also need financial resources to access decent food and sanitary products also reinforces disparities in resources. The whole system accomodates better people with revenues.
And probably if you don't have money in prison you are vulnerable to other abuses which may lead you to the need of self-defense and new charges against you. Hhhm how do you think?
More important for our discussion is that Appolition is a technology with an emancipatory ethos, a tool of solidarity that directs resources to getting people literally free. In fact, many White people who have signed up say that they see it as a form of reparation, (I am not sure how I feel about 'repair', it still seems heirarchical?/fixing the racist system? but the app seems really important, I kind of feel like it is a way to make a problem visable. To establish a knowledge about how problematic the system is and showing that, as the code do not do, as a group you are able to change politics...but yeah, then the word repair feels a bit off...)(I read 'repair' differently to 'reparation')I think I am scared of white people paying off their guilt instead of doing other forms of activism, or trying to change the fucked up system. Though this is a neccessary intermediate stage for change.) so true
also, ultimately the money is going back into an oppressive system, so it's not really repairing, looks more like damage control
below it is explained that the bail money can be reused as it is paid back by the system when you are not guilty or do time (indeed ta)
[btw are we talking about reparations in general or in this particular example?] it reads like personal reparations instead of institutional
[right! i was thinking of the state paying reparations] i can understand that because I also never thought of it in a personal context.Maybe I could wish that it would be more of an awakaning among white people reather than a reperation. It reads a bit like white people again do not take a close look at them selfs. But maybe it is also like a thinking "error" in a way, that within a western way of thinking we like to look for a "fix". yes and you can do this fast and easily, just donating the money, pop! (and you keep your distance still, you do not have to get to know any black people, you can just be that western, white, colonial "saviour" again):( One thing that will fix it, make the bad go away, so maybe I am curious how then the autor links this to the erliser description of looking at relations rather than comparing. good thing to remember yes. Likw what is the relations that accure for whit people useing the app?
one small way to counteract the fact that the carceral system uses software that codes for inequity. To date, Appolition has raised $230,000, that money being directed to local organizations whose posted bails have freed over 65 people. As the National Bail Out network explains, “[e]veryday an average of 700,000 people are condemned to local jails and separated from their families. A majority of them are there simply because they cannot afford to pay bail.” :( this part connect really well with the yes we mean literally abolish the police article.
When Ziegler and I sat on a panel together at the 2018 Allied Media Conference [this is a great organisation btw], he addressed audience concerns that the app is diverting even more money to a bloated carceral system. As Ziegler clarified, money is returned to the depositor after a case is complete, so donations are continuously recycled to help individuals. Interest in the app has grown so much that Appolition has launched a new version, which can handle a larger volume of donations and help direct funds to more organizations.
But the news is not all good. As Ziegler explained, the motivation behind ventures like Appolition can be mimicked by people who do not have an abolitionist commitment. He described a venture that the rapper Jay-Z is investing [for profit? i.e not donating to.I think Promise makes money because it charges. aargh. This is so depressing :( why is Jay-Z investing in sth like this??] i guess he hasn't heard of appolition? he could've freed lots of ppl by now :'( we should tell him! ok lets drop him an email on it! :) Jay-Z also tried to make money out of Occupy so this guy has a record of pretending to stand for a good cause or political issue but in reality is just trying to earn more money. millions in, called Promise. Although Jay-Z and others call it a “decarceration start-up” (bleurgh) lol my thought exactlyI'm sick too. because it addresses the problem of pretrial detention, which impacts disproportionately Black and Latinx people who cannot afford bail, Promise is in the business of tracking individuals [never a good idea] [tracking them going to places that are over subscribed and underfunded. Putting your money in the wrong place Jaaaay] via the app and GPS monitoring. And, whereas a county can spend up to $200 a day holding someone in jail, Promise can charge $17.8 [holding them in another kind of jail, so this becomes the CIC toch?] This is why the organization BYP100 (Black Youth Project 100) issued a warning that Promise
"helps expand the scope of what the Prison Industrial Complex is and will be in the future. The digital sphere and tech world of the 2000’s [sic] is the next sector to have a stronghold around incarceration, and will mold what incarceration looks like and determine the terrain on which prison abolitionists have to fight as a result."
BYP100 extends the critique of abolitionist organizations like Critical Resistance [we'll be using one of their scripts on Sunday], which describes “the overlapping interests of government and industry that use surveillance, policing, and imprisonment as solutions to what are, in actuality, economic, social, and political ‘problems’” (reading this makes me think abt the question 'whether destruction is necessary for growth' again, & in truth I don't see another option)destruction doesn't have to be a bad thing, pow! BOOM BOOM It depends on how you see radical change. If you want to change the education system you might need to abandon schools in their current form. otherwise it will just be small changes but still classrooms and the associated architecture that has little room for teaching otherwise Yes exactly, & I think this is the big frustration with any kind of established institution trying to make changes within their structures; they don't work, because the structures are inherently broken & unjust. Abandon & abolition is not destruction, but it's similar? mmm nice. though we can't abandon the PIC we have to take it down/apart. Yeah & maybe this is the issue with all (most) 'institutions' bc they belong to systems of oppression, abandoning a school doesn't mean the structures change? yes. But if you're a head teacher you don't want to destroy your school haha.
under the description prison–industrial complex (PIC). The Corrections Project[http://correctionsproject.com/prisonmaps/pic4.htm] has created a map of all these interests, with prisons and jails at the core and extending to law enforcement, prison guard unions, prison construction companies and vendors, courts, urban and rural developers, corporations, the media, and more.
It is important to note that there is debate about whether “PIC” is an accurate and useful descriptor. Some prefer “corrections industrial complex,” [CIC] to draw attention to probation and surveillance as the fastest growing [because most profitable] part of the industry. Others offer a more far-reaching critique by questioning how industrial and complex the PIC really is since the corrections arena is still overwhelmingly public – the budget is less than 1 percent of the GDP, less than 0.5 percent of the incarcerated being employed by private firms. It is also an overwhelmingly decentralized enterprise, run at the local, county, and state levels rather than masterminded by a central government entity, as is for example the Pentagon vis-à-vis the military–industrial complex.
Even so, the term “PIC” has been useful as a rhetorical device for drawing widespread attention to the exponential growth of prison and policing since 1980 and for highlighting the multiple investments of a wide range of entities. Profit, in this context, is made not only in cash, but also in political power, property, TV ratings, and other resources from economic to symbolic, including the fact that many companies now invest in e-corrections as a fix for prison overcrowding. [venture capitalist PIC]
If both Appolition and Promise apply digital tools to helping people who cannot afford bail to get out of cages, why is Promise a problem for those who support prison abolition? Because it creates a powerful mechanism that makes it easier to put people back in; ...promising not to let u out of their sight! and, rather than turning away from the carceral apparatus, it extends it into everyday life. I think this is a valid point. That is is also importnat to work for that people will never have to go back into jail again. Like work needs to be done on several levels at the same time. And maybe then it is important to talk about relations again. do we need systems totally outside of the current carceral system that we use?
Whereas the money crowdfunded for Appolition operates like an endowment that is used to bail people out, Promise is an investment and collaborates with [+extends the reach of] law enforcement. The company, which received $3 million in venture capital, is not in the business of decarceration but is part of the “technocorrections” [strong term, keeper] industry, which seeks to capitalize on very real concerns about “mass incarceration and the political momentum of social justice organizing. Products like Promise make it easier and more cost-effective for people to be tracked and thrown back into jail for technical violations. One “promise” here is to the state – that the company can keep track of individuals – and another to the taxpayer – that the company can cut costs. As for the individuals held captive, the burden of nonstop surveillance is arguably better than jail, but a digital cell is still a form of high-tech social control. all surveillance should be scrutinized as it is basically a form of distrust of citizens and seldom works for their protection. Protection against the state is necessary. or our own surveillance on the state?! the Tweede Kamer is continually misinformed or uninformed which makes the option of checking the state a lot more difficult. So the government withdraws from surveillance while at the same time surveilling its citizens more and more.
Promise, in this way, is exemplary of the New Jim Code; and it is dangerous and insidious precisely because it is packaged as social betterment. Scary :/ This, along with the weight of Jay Z’s celebrity, will make it difficult to challenge Promise (actually I think he got some backlash when peopel realised people would end up with bracelets). But if this company is to genuinely contribute contribute to decarceration, it would need to shrink the carceral apparatus, not extend it and make it more encompassing. After all, prison conglomerates such as Geo Group and CoreCivic are proving especially adept at reconfiguring their business investments, leaving prisons and detention centers and turning to tech alternatives, for instance ankle monitors and other digital tracking devices. In some cases the companies that hold lucrative government contracts to imprison asylum seekers are the same ones that the US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) hires to provide social services to these very people, as they continue to be monitored remotely. While not being locked in a cage is an improvement, the alternative is a “form of coded inequity and carceral control; and it is vital that people committed to social justice look beyond the shiny exterior of organizations that peddle such reforms. (starting to get some Foucault/Deleuze vibes) bound to happen dividuals.
A key tenet of prison abolition is that caging people works directly against the safety and well-being of communities because jails and prisons do not address the underlying reasons why people harm themselves and others – in fact they exacerbate the problem by making it even more difficult to obtain any of the support needed to live, work, and make amends for harms committed. Coincidentally heard a radio item about a case in the Netherlands which also discussed the bureaucracy that isn't in favor of supporting people who return to jail regularly (because they keep on finding themselves in the same circuit and quite often are also addicts unable to restrain themselves and without options thus entering a viscious circle as soon as they leave prison) with the underlying issues they need to tackle in order to change the status quo of their ending up in jail all the time. do you have the ref by any chance? I'll try to find it, it was an article i listened to on Blendle, an app to listen to news and other items. >> it's difficult retrieving the article, because I don't remember the title or the original source -_-' btw striking difference about the prison/emprisonment rhetoric in NL (though far from knowledgeable on the topic) is it seems to be far less focused on ethnicity/ethnic inequality. for anyone interested to read a little more I found this (Dutch source and language): https://demonitor.kro-ncrv.nl/artikelen/waarom-zoveel-gevangenen-opnieuw-in-de-fout-gaan-tien-oorzaken-van-recidive and https://demonitor.kro-ncrv.nl/artikelen/gevangenisstraf-vergroot-vaak-kans-op-recidive yes would also be interested, In sweden we have KRIS which stands for Criminals rights in the society, they work with this... But in the age of the New Jim Code, as BYP100 noted, this abolitionist ethos must be extended beyond the problem of caging, to our consideration of technological innovations marketed as supporting prison reform. reformist reform, not radical (as in of or to do with a root
or foundation).
Coding people as “risky” kicks in an entire digital apparatus that extends incarceration well beyond the prison wall.[same logic to the tracking apps that were proposed as a way to tackle COVID infections] Think of it this way. Yes, it is vital to divert money away from imprisonment to schools and public housing, if we really want to make communities stronger, safer, and more supportive for all their members. But, as Critical Resistance has argued, simply diverting resources in this way is no panacea, because schools and public housing as they currently function are an extension of the PIC (how can we get society to accept this?): many operate with a logic of carcerality and on policies that discriminate against those who have been convicted of crimes. Pouring money into them as they are will only make them more effective in their current function as institutions of social control. DESTRUCTION IS THE ONLY SOLUTION But maybe we need something else, now I am saying it a bit more in general; like the differece between revolution and reformation. Maybe we need like something totally differnt...destruction of that which is controlling? That is different for everyone ... and very discriminatory, I retract that idea. We have to look beyond the surface of what they say they do to what they actually do, in the same way in which I am calling on all of us to question the “do good” rhetoric of the tech industry. Some social anarchy is needed where education depends on enriching yourself mentally, socially and practically. A non-competitive system without grades but with a strong sense of collectivity from a diverse perspective.
For prison abolitionists, “we don’t just want better funded schools (although that might be an important step). We also demand the power to shape the programs and institutions in our communities” and to propose a new and more humane vision of how resources and technology are used. This requires us to consider not only the ends but also the means. How we get to the end matters. If the path is that private companies, celebrities, and tech innovators should cash in on the momentum of communities and organizations that challenge mass incarceration, the likelihood is that the end achieved will replicate the current social order.
Let us shift, then, from technology as an outcome to toolmaking as a practice, so as to consider the many different types of tools needed to resist coded inequity, to build solidarity, and to engender liberation. Initiatives like Appolition offer a window into a wider arena of “design justice” that takes many forms (see Appendix), some of which I will explore below. But first allow me a reflection on the growing discourse around technology and empathy (rather than equity or justice).
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This is the end of the Introduction to Chapter 5.
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